2011 № 2(5)
Мουσικός — musicus — musician.
An Essay about the Music Terminology of Boethius
The article discusses a keyword musicus used in the Boethius’ treatise «Fundamentals of Music» (written between 500 and 510). The problem is that the original connotations of this word became alien to the modern musicology, therefore an appropriate translation is absent from the modern language. The author of the article unfolds the broad context of the musicus usage in early documents (Ancient Greek and Roman as well as archaic Russian sources) to argue his own attempt of rendering an alien concept into contemporary Russian language. Finally, a new (Russian) translation of the famous Boethius’ «Quid sit musicus» chapter is supplied.
Keywords: Boethius, Western music theory, terminology of music
«Antique» Musical Instruments
in the Intermedi for the Wedding
of Cosimo I de’ Medici and Eleonora da Toledo (1539)
The use of «antique» musical instruments in the Renaissance theatrical performances was as frequent as their occurrence in the fine arts of the time. Whenever a mythological or allegorical character was brought into play its appearance and behaviour had to follow the strict guidelines of contemporary iconography: Apollo, for example, had to play his lyre and Pan had to play his syrinx. That wasn’t, however, the only requirement to be met. An iconographically correct performance had to be accompanied with «correct» sound, i. e. one which complied both with contemporary musical tradition and rediscovered antique models. In this article we make an attempt to understand the way in which antique sources had influenced the representation of «antique» musical instruments at one particular performance, the intermedi by G. B. Strozzi, performed July 1539 at the wedding of Cosimo I de’ Medici and Eleonora da Toledo. The russian translation (by the author of the article) of the excerpts from P. F. Giambullari’s Apparato et feste that contain a thorough description of Strozzi’s intermedi is included in the appendix.
Keywords: Renaissance, antiquity, theatre, intermedi,
musical instruments, Medici, Strozzi, Corteccia
Kapsperger and his Madrigal Intabulations for Chitarrone:
an Old Musical Genre and its New Instrumental Lifestyle
Analysis of two chitarrone (theorbo) works by Giovanni Girolamo Kapsperger from his newly rediscovered (in 2001/2) Terzo Libro d’Intavolatura di Chitarone (2006). These are intabulations of madrigals «Ancidetemi pur» (by J. Arcadelt) and «Com’esser può» (by Gesualdo of Venosa). The article shows in what manner the music first written for a polyphonic vocal ensemble, is adapted for the chitarrone (theorbo) — basso continuo instrument with little contrapuntal possibilities (much less than those of the lute or of keyboard instruments). It demonstrates how this kind of polyphonic models is transformed into highly idiomatic virtuoso instrumental music of the passeggiato type, by either the simplification of the contrapuntal texture and the diminution using ornamental figures typical for the theorbo style. Some stylistical differences in Kapsperger’s approach to the two different madrigals are pointed out, as well as their probable
Keywords: Kapsperger, Arcadelt, Gesualdo, theorbo, chitarrone,
improvisation, madrigal, intabulation, passeggiato,
«Erminia» Guido Casoni — Biagio Marini:
Renaissance Theatre on the Baroque Stage
In this paper two B. Marini’s (1594–1663) compositions are considered, based on paraphrases of the Venetian poet G. Casoni on texts of T. Tasso’s «Jerusalem Delivered»: a monologue «Tears of Erminia» (op. 6, 1623) and a madrigal for 6 voices and 6 instruments «Beatiful Erminia» (ор. 7, 1634). The new data about the history of creation of these works and about their poetic primary sources is cited. It is shown that, despite genre and stylistic distinctions, both compositions of Marini are genetically connected with improvisational vocal forms of the Renaissance (aria per cantar sonetti, romanesca).
In the appendix there are translations of the poems «In a lonely valley» and «Beatiful Erminia» by G. Casoni and prefaces to them, and also a transcription of a vocal monologue «Tears of Erminia» by B. Marini, executed by the author of the article are placed.
Keywords: Torquato Tasso, Erminia, Guido Casoni,
Biagio Marini, ode, musical theatre, stile recitativo,
concerted madrigal, vocal improvisation
Music Poetry and Poetic Prose
in «An filius non est Dei» of Dietrich Buxtehude
This article deals with the Latin composition of Dietrich Buxtehude «An filius non est Dei». The amazing harmony, completeness of the figurative content and perfection of the form equates this composition with the Passion cycle «Membra Jesu nostri». In this article the author puts the questions of the music and text-music form. Thus particular attention is devoted to the composer’s method of work at the text. The author tries to find the answer to the question what occurs in music when the composer transforms the poetic text into prosaic and why he does that.
Keywords: Buxtehude, Petermann, Rist, cantata, poetry, prose,
Passion, viola da gamba, ensemble, ritornello
Goldberg Variations by J. S. Bach.
Essay II. Compositional Method
and the Inner Structure of the Cycle
In the Goldberg variations Bach combines two different types of variation: basso ostinato (the bass line of an opening Aria was taken for a base of the theme for the following variations) with genre (each variation has its individual character). The cycle is strictly organized. First, the work is divided into two large parts by the variation 16, which is a French Overture. Secondly, all 30 variations are divided into ten groups of three. Each three contains a genre piece in character of the Baroque suite dance (Sarabande, Minuet, Gavotte and so on), a virtuosic clavier toccata in the manner of Scarlatti and a canon with increasing interval of imitation. The author also retraces the history of understanding this structure by Bach scholars.
Keywords: J. S Bach, Bach scholars, the Goldberg variations,
variation form, variations types,
organization of variation cycle
Harpsichord or Clavichord:
What Does Georg Simon Löhlein Recommend to Practice on?
The paper is concerned of the most popular in 18th and 19th centuries Russia «Clavier-Schule» of Löhlein due to it first publication in Russian in 1773. The specificity of understanding the term «clavichord» in Russia and the importance of the clavichord in early study of clavier playing are analyzed. We investigate also the problems of clavichord touch, ornamentation and articulation by precise fingering.
Keywords: Löhlein, clavier manual, clavichord,
Alfredo Casella’s Russian Diary.
A Return Trip from St. Petersburg to Moscow
For the first time «The Russian Diary» was published in the Italian daily newspaper «La Tribuna» in January 1927. It was written after a fortnight tour of Alfredo Casella, an Italian composer, pianist and public figure, in the Soviet Union. Casella was the first Italian musician who paid an official visit to this country after the October Revolution. It’s the first time when the Diary is published in Russian.
Keywords: Italy, Alfredo Casella, the Russian Diary,
International Society for Contemporary Music (ISCM),
the Soviet Union, Leningrad, Moscow