2011 № 4
On the Mobility of Structures in Liszt’s Works: from Romantic Form-Process to «Open» Form
The paper considers some specific features of romantic form-making, flowing time duration of the form and polysemy of compositional functions in Liszt’s works, including the Sonata in b minor, — in close connection with using of the harmonic structures.
The strong growth of the features of «open» form (Inna Barsova’s term) is shown from the works of the central period («La Vallee d’Obermann», Sonata) to the late works (the symphonic poem «Von der Wiege bis zum Grabe», some piano pieces). The publication marks compositional specialities of the works of Liszt who came out of limits of Romanticism.
Keywords: Romanticism, Ferenc Liszt, piano music,
form as a process, «open» form
The Moscow tour of Liszt
This paper deals with Liszt’s tour in Moscow in 1843. It brings into common use the E. V. Filatyeva’s diary — the archival source which fragments are published for the first time. Thanks to Filatyeva’s reports it is possible to supply the lacks of the information on repertoire performed by Liszt in Moscow, on visits which he paid, on drawing-room conversations with him, on his acts of charity. These materials given in constant comparison to other, known documents on Liszt’s sojourn in Moscow essentially enrich our notion of the great pianist and how the Moscow public welcomed him.
Keywords: Ferenc Liszt, music life of Moscow
«A Swan Song» of A. Arensky — Incidental Music to Shakespeare’s «The Tempest»
In this paper dedicated to the 150th anniversary of birth of the outstanding Russian musician, the professor of the Moscow Conservatory A. S. Arensky the short review of his life and career is given. Incidental music to Shakespeare’s «The Tempest» performed in the «Maly Theater» is the focus of attention. The author of this paper reveals the history of its creation, notes the specific features of dramatic art and the musical material.
Keywords: Anton Arensky, Moscow Conservatory,William Shakespeare,
«The Tempest», incidental music, Russian theater
«The Uprise of a texture». The Aspects of Pitch and Mode in Sofia Gubaidulina’s Partita «Seven Words»
The paper considers the specifics of tonal system in one of the outstanding works by Sofia Gubaidulina «Seven Words» for cello, button accordion and strings (1982). The grammar of the musical idiom is not set initially, but is recognized gradually, as if emerging from the structure of the whole piece. As a result, the mode on a higher level, or meta-mode (if one could call it that), takes shape which is revealed to the listener only by way of retrospective synthesis.
Keywords: Sofia Gubaidulina, tonal system
«Revolutionary» Novelty and Invincible Traditionalism: Notes on Sofia Gubaidulina’s Concerto for Bassoon and Low Strings
Not to intend of giving detailed analysis of the Concerto the paper considers its intonational and style dramaturgy in the context of a broad sphere of the problems: genre of concerto in the classical-romantic tradition and in contemporary music, the problem of soloist («hero») and orchestra («society», «mass», «crowd»), the role of the performer, Valery Popov, in the history of creation of the work, solo instrument and widening of its possibilities, metamorphoses of classical conflict dramaturgy in newest music, avant-guard search after new sonoriries.
Keywords: Sofia Gubaidulina, genre, concerto, bassoon, musical dramaturgy, conflict
Sonata «Rejoice!» for Violin and Violoncello by Sofia Gubaidulina: a Dialogue with Grigory Skovoroda’s Philosophy
The paper examines the influence of the Skovoroda’s philosophy on the concept of the Gubaidulina’s Sonata. One of the philosopher’s major ideas and its revision by the composer are considered, namely the possibility for a person to find true happiness, when he feels the presence of God in the heart. The author of the paper describes the genre associations and the elaborated system of musical symbolism as the ways to embody religious and philosophical ideas in the score.
Keywords: Sofia Gubaidulina, Grigory Skovoroda,
musical symbolism, semantics
The French Organ Building’s Evolution from Renaissance to Baroque: the Emergence of «Specification-Type»
This is the first of three publications on the function of René Descartes’ concepts of the «method» and of the «order» in the system of French Baroque organ art that unites the organ building, the composer’s work and the interpretation. As a result of comparative analysis of Renaissance and Baroque organ specifications the new rational principles of the French organ building at the turn of the 16th–17th centuries are revealed and the early Baroque «specification-type» relevant to the «method» and the «order» criterions is reconstructed.
Keywords: French organ building, Renaissance, Baroque, organ specification, organ stops, René Descartes,
«method» and «order»
The Goldberg Variations by J. S. Bach. Essay III. On the History of Interpretations
Trying to find and guess hidden meanings and symbolism some Bach scholars propone philosophical, religious, even esoteric explanations and comments. The author of this paper examines different speculative interpretations and classifies them into several groups. Earlier versions are connected with romantic view on Bach’s music. The G. Gould’s philosophical commentary opens a new era in understanding of the Goldberg Variations. Further scholars find here some culturological relations with previous epochs, architectural analogies, mathematical principles of organization. In addition various interpretations of Quodlibet are examined.
Keywords: Johann Sebastian Bach, the Goldberg Variations, Bach scholarship, variation cycle, quodlibet, interpretation of musical meanings, culturology, number symbolism
Johann Joahim Quantz
Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen. Das IV Hauptstück. Von dem Ansatze (Embouchure)
Russian translation and comments by Ekaterina Dryazzhina
The series of extracts from the J. J. Quantz’s treatise closely related to performance practice is continued in this publication. In the translator’s comments and afterword the specificity of the Quantz’s demands on the flute embouchure and tone production is revealed. The suppositions why the author of «Versuch» has created the method so different from the flute schools of his contemporaries as well as from playing on Baroque flute at present are made.
Keywords: early music, history of music performance, Johann Joahim Quantz, Baroque flute,
embouchure, Jacques de Vaucanson
The Gregorian Modality and Composition (on the basis of the Franciscan Manuscript Graguals)
The results of the structural analysis of Gregorian chants on the basis of the Franciscan manuscript graduals are given in this paper. Starting point of the analysis is the simple sentence of the text which includes four parts: intonation, medium cadence, reintonation and final cadence. Vocabulary of basic melody items has been created — by modes as well as by chant genres, considering all possible variants. Characteristic ways of melody extension — typical modal movements — are formulated. It has been established, that formulas and movements have different structural functions. As a result, the Gregorian methods of composition have been evaluated as well as relation between text and melody, structural details of different genres and intonations specified for each modus.
Keywords: Gregorian modality, Gregorian modes, composition, melodic formula, typical modal movement
Innovations — Intution — Meaning: Vladimir Tarnopolsky’s «Foucault’s Pendulum»
«Foucault’s Pendulum» for large ensemble (2004) by Vladimir Tarnopolsky was named after the novel by Umberto Eco. Although the composer does not favor excessively relying on plots in his music, nonetheless, the music has incorporated the novel’s ideas of cosmism and of a confused account of time. Turning to the spectral technique of the French late 20th century composers, Tarnopolsky interprets it in his own personal way: by basing his composition on a complex central harmony incorporating intervals of fifths and tritons. The work has a unique compositional idea with its modulation from the leading harmony into the leading rhythm. The bare rhythm, having been shorn of most of the other musical elements, is emphasized by the introduction of uniform beats of a metronome, which is followed by a most complex polyrhythmy of up to 16 voices. In the culmination of the work a melodic ostinato is presented. The paper examines the work’s compositional structure in great detail, indicating the recapitulatory and framing moments. A conclusion is reached about the full value of the main musical elements in the composition — harmony, rhythm and melody and, from the position of musical content, — of the presence of all three sides of musical content: emotion, depiction and symbolism. Due to the allusions to Scriabin and Stravinsky, the presence in this composition of qualities inherent in Russian music are established and proven.
Keywords: Vladimir Tarnopolsky, «Foucault’s Pendulum», spectral technique,
newest musical trends, Russian tradition
Taneyev the Teacher
The paper deals with the Taneyev’s activities as the professor of the Moscow Conservatory lecturing music theory disciplines. The specialities of Taneyev’s teaching manners, his style of communicating with students, artistic tastes, moral principles are in focus. The author of the paper defines the basic pedagogical principles of Taneyev: historicism, practical approach to teaching, individual syllabus for each student etc. Afterwards, on the fundament of these principles the Moscow Conservatory’s music theory school has emerged.
Keywords: Sergei Taneyev, Moscow Conservatory, scientific and methodological principles,
functional harmony, music theory
Inna Barsova: «The Only Thing I Might Wish You: Don’t Stop to Wonder…»
(Interview by Valery Berezin)
One of the eldest professors of the Moscow Conservatory relates about her scientific and pedagogic activities, course of life. Also Prof. Barsova recollects her teachers and remarkable people she has met.
Keywords: Moscow Conservatory, Gustav Mahler, Alexander Mosolov, cori spezzati, score-reading