2012 №2 (9)
Marco Cara, musicus excellens at the Court of Mantua
The article is dedicated to one of the most important figures of Italian secular music of the first decades of the 16th century — Mantuan cantore a liuto and frottolista Marco Cara. The factual information about Сara is reported on the base of published documents relating to the time of Isabella d’Este and Francesco II Gonzaga, primarily letters of marquises, and some tendencies of the court musical life are identified, which had an influence on the destiny of this prominent musician.
Keywords: Marco Cara, Isabella d’Este, epistolary heritage, frottola
Guarini’s Il pastor fido and Monteverdi’s Madrigals from the Fourth and Fifth books
Il pastor fido is the pastoral tragicomedy written by G. B. Guarini. It became immensely popular at courts of Italy at the turn of XVI–XVII centuries. It had brought particular interest at the court of Duke of Mantua, Vincenzo I Gonzaga, who had several times tried to adapt it to stage. Il pastor fido has also inspired most of composers of Mantuan court of the time to create madrigals upon the lyrics of the piece. This article tries to analyze such madrigals written by the most widely known Mantuan composer of the time, Claudio Monteverdi, published in the Fourth and Fifth Books of madrigals. The analysis shows autor’s intention behind each of the books, and his discoveries in ways of expression in the genre of madrigal.
Keywords: Madrigal, Claudio Monteverdi, Fourth Book of Madrigals, Fifth Book of Madrigals, Giovanni Battista Guarini, tragicomedia pastorale «Il Pastor Fido»
Baldassare Galuppi and Russian Church Music
The visit of Baldassare Galuppi to Russia was rather short — it lasted only 3 years (1765–68), but proved to have great consequences for the development of Russian music culture. Galuppi composed operas and cantatas for the Court of Catherine the Great, and also wrote a number of choral concertos to Old Church Slavonic texts for the use during the Russian Orthodox Liturgy by the Court Chapel Choir. At the time of Galuppi’s living in Russia, the Court and people close to it were mostly impressed by his operas. However, the impact of his creative activity and his compositions came out of the framework of secular music genres. In fact, while his operas turned out to be of interest for the Court only for a short time, though the interest being enormous, his choir concertos were soon widely performed in the farthest places of Russia, as shown by manuscripts from Vologodskaya, Yaroslavskaya and other regions. The majority of musicologists consider Galuppi to be the founder of this important genre of the Russian church music. Having spent in Russia such a short time, Galuppi managed to leave there a certain long-lasting music tradition, mostly through his scholar Bortnyansky, who studied with him for a long time in Italy and after returning home became one of the most famous Russian composers of his time. There has been a continuous discussion in Russia whether the European style of the church music written by Galuppi, Bortnyansky and their successors conforms to the Orthodox Liturgy or not. Nevertheless, this style prevailed in Russia for a long time. The paper will highlight new pieces of evidence showing the high occurrence of Galuppi’s sacred concertos in Russian churches, as revealed by hand-written singing books found in archives of Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev and Berlin. In particular, examination of the Berlin archive allowed us to attribute to Galuppi one of the choral pieces previously ascribed in this archive to Bortnyansky.
Keywords: Galuppi, Russian church music, Bortnyansky, Plotiyu usnuv
To the Origins of the Venice Opera Buffa: Palomba’s La Maestra and Goldoni’s La scuola moderna o sia la maestra di buon gusto
La maestra (Naples 1747 with text by A. Palomba and music by G. Cocchi) restaged in Venice (1748) was a first meeting Goldoni’s with a new genre of musical comedy. Goldoni modified basically original text and it gives rise to look closely at controversies around his creative style: collisions between his riforma and controriforma trends, between satire and didactics, realism and idealization. This case demonstrates also delicate distinctions in his approach to literary comedies and libretto dependent on his rating of both genres.
Keywords: Italian opera 18th century, Neapolitan musical comedy,
Venetian opera buffa, comedies and libretti by Goldoni,
theatric character in comic opera
The 16th-Century Arrangements of Vocal Polyphony
for the Guitar and for the Cittern
A study of the intabulation techniques of vocal polyphony for the «imperfect» Renaissance instruments — the 4-course guitar and the cittern. The «imperfection» of these instruments (that is, their polyphonic limitations, such as a limited total ambitus, or the plectrum technique on the cittern) was compensated by their popularity that created a tendency to build for them a «serious» repertory based upon the favourite polyphonic songs and even motets. One can observe different ways to adapt a rather complex polyphony to guitar’s or cittern’s possibilities. Some musicians transpose voices from one octave to another or take off some portions of them, without much care about the resulting harmonical and contrapuntal irregularities (Le Roy, Morlaye — in their guitar intabulations, Phalèse and others — in cittern ones), others choose simpler, 2 or 3-voice models to intabulate (guitar: Gorlier, partially Le Roy). Still other possibility is to rework completely the original’s polyphony (rather than simply «intabulate» it) in order to adapt it to the instrument without loosing the contrapuntal clarity and quality (Gorlier, for the guitar). Towards the end of the 16th century appear 6-course citterns (Kargel, Virchi), whose polyphonic faculties approach those of such a «perfect» instrument as lute.
Keywords: Renaissance, intabulation, 4-course («Renaissance») guitar, cittern,
«perfect» instruments, «imperfect» instruments, polyphony
Regarding the History of the Early Keyboard Instruments:
the Clavichord of Johann Pachelbel
A special place in history of keyboard instruments national schools takes European clavichord making of the 2nd half of the 17th — beginning of the 18th century. Fretted clavichord characteristics and its value in musical life of those days Germany, and especially in the works of Johann Pachelbel are examined. As sources not only appropriate manuscripts and iconographic data were used, but also photographic materials from European musical instruments collections.
Keywords: fretted clavichord, keyboard instruments, Johann Pachelbel
Heart’s Mysticism in Fallax mundus of Dietrich Buxtehude
The central themes of this paper are an allegory, mysticism and emblems in the composition of Dietrich Buxtehude on the Latin text Fallax mundus, which had long been on the periphery of the research interests for the reason that the musicologists could not identify the source of the poetic text for a long time. After a lengthy search author of this article has found the engravings of the Belgian master Anton Wierix II. They contained not only the allegorical figures, but also the text used by Buxtehude in his composition. Description, analysis and comparison of Jesuitical painted poem and work of Buxtehude are focus of this essay.
Keywords: Buxtehude, Wierix, Fürst, engraving, Jesuits, Passion, mysticism, recitative accompagnato, da capo
Johann Joahim Quantz
Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen.
Das VI und VII Hauptstücke
Russian translation and comments by Ekaterina Dryazzhina
The series of extracts from the J. J. Quantz’s treatise closely related to performance practice is continued in this publication. In the translator’s comments and afterword the specificity of the Quantz’s demands on the flute articulation and phrasing is revealed.
Keywords: early music, history of music performance, Johann Joahim Quantz, Baroque flute
Siegfried Palmʼs Contribution to the Development
of Extended Cello Techniques
This paper deals with album of pieces by Avant-garde composers for cello-solo completed by Siegfried Palm. This is a collection of extracts to be used as studies to modern cello playing with comments and descriptive notes given by Palm himself. The Palm studies are the part of a series Pro Musica Nova by Breitkopf und Härtel, that includes similar books for flute, piano, oboe, violin, viola, guitar and clarinet. These pieces include particular aspects of technique often found in contemporary scores such as graphic notation, special kinds of extended techniques, and at the same time this album helps to approach some modern composers’ languages. It’s nearly an only book of this kind for cello, which shows how cellists’ traditional technical boundaries are stretched in modern music and in what senses traditional technique was expanded according to twentieth century’ composers ideas
Keywords: Key words: Ziegfried Palm, contemporary cello solo pieces, handbook, extended cello techniques, graphically notated music, «New music», Engelmann, Penderecki, Zimmrermann, Yun
How to start a harmonic analysis?
Publication by Ivan Starostin
This Article is a brief methodical manual on the analysis of harmony in the music of XX century. Kholopov sets out a sequence of analytical action and demonstrates his method on the examples from the works of Debussy, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Stravinsky and others.
Keywords: Kholopov, harmonic analysis, individual modus, the basic principle of harmony of the twentieth century