Abstracts

COMMEMORATING THE 150TH ANNIVERSARY OF MOSCOW CONSERVATORY

Tatyana S. Kyureghyan (Kyuregyan)
Doctor of Fine Arts, Full Professor
of the Music Theory Subdepartment
at Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatory

Ivan S. Starostin
Ph. D., Assistant Professor
of the Music Theory Subdepartment,
editor of the Department of Computer Technologies
and Information Security
at Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatory

Igor V. Sposobin:
Development of Pedagogical Traditions
of Moscow Conservatory

I. Sposobin is an outstanding scholar in the sphere of music and pedagogue, throughout his life he has been associated with the Moscow Conservatory. Being a student of R. Gliyer and G. Konyus, a successor of pedagogic traditions of S. Taneev, I. Sposobin brought up a lot of students. His textbooks on Fundamentals of Music Theory, Harmony and Musical Form, Solfeggio collections are widely used up to now. Scientific ideas of I. Sposobin are continued by his disciples, who formed a strong school within the integrated research and teaching traditions of Moscow Conservatory.

Keywords: Sposobin, harmony, form, methodic, teaching

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FROM THE HISTORY OF EUROPEAN MUSIC

Margarita A. Grigoryeva
Ph. D., Associate Professor
of the Subdepartment of Music History and Theory
at Serebriakov Volgograd Conservatory

The Ancient Chromatic Genus (chrōma) — 
From Antiquity to the Present Day

The article traces the life of the motif, derived from the Greek chroma genus (the so-called antique chrōma, conditional g–e–es–d). In line with the interest for antique culture peculiar to European humanists this motif was caught up by the Renaissance and Early Baroque composers (N. Vicentino, L. Marenzio, C. Le Jeune, P. Nenna, C. Gesualdo, M. Rossi, G. Trabaci, G. Frescobaldi, etc.). The article analyzes examples of specific development of the antique chrōma in their oeuvre. Special attention is paid to the problem of the modal harmonization of the motif; furthermore, its semantics is revealed. Neglected in the Classical and Romantic periods, antique chrōma had attracted attention of some composers in the 20th century. The stylistic potential of the “classical” motif is far from being exhausted as some of the analyzed examples show (A. Shnittke, S. Sciarrino).

Keywords: Early Greek music, chromatic harmony, melodic motive, Vicentino, Le°Jeune, Gesualdo, Frescobaldi

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Natalya S. Storchak
Post-graduate student
of Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatory

The Study of Modal Variability
in the Treatise “Lucidarium”
by Marchetto of Padua

Marchetto of Padua (the beginning of 14th century) is the most influential music theorist in Italy after Guido of Arezzo. Marchetto’s modal theory (from the treatise “Lucidarium in arte musice plane”) was the most quoted part of his heritage. His modal theory is an attempt to comprehend theoretically the phenomenon of modal variability in Gregorian chants: he submitted the original doctrine on commixture of modes (tonus commixtus). The present article is devoted to consideration of Marchetto’s innovative concept of interruptiones. Interruptio —  «intermediation», «interruption» —  the term introduced by Marchetto for designation of different ways of melodic filling of species of a consonance (a 5th or 4th). As an eхample Marchetto presented eight ways of melodic filling of the first species of the 5th —  d–a. Depending on its melodic filling a species of a 5th or a 4th can (or, on the contrary, cannot) introduce in a chant the features of other modes. Marchetto’s doctrine on interruptiones is a kind of practical handbook for the most exact definition of modal structure in the Gregorian chant; it also reflects interaction between scale and formula aspects of mode.

Keywords: Marchetto, “Lucidarium”, mode, species, interruptio, commixtus

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Ekaterina M. Nazarova
Leader of the State Chamber Orchestra of Russia

Viennese Mid-17th-Century Solo Violin Sonatas in the Genre’s History

This article challenges the idea that there was an only trend in the style development of the solo violin sonata in Central Europe during the second half of the 17th century, which is prevalent among contemporary studies of the genre’s history. Careful analysis has proven there to be two lines. Composers representing the first (Biber, Walter, Döbel, Muffat, etc.) carried on the traditions of their Italian predecessors. The resulting sonatas are distinguished by improvisational sections on static bass, polyphonic writing, the propensity towards sequential presentation of the material, and preference for the standard instrumental figures. At the same time, sonatas of two prominent Viennese masters —  Bertali and Schmelzer —  are a special phenomenon, which we consider as the second line. They are characterized by expressive melodic writing, homophonic texture, rich harmonies in the bass lines that have a great influence on the compositions as a whole, motivic elaboration, combinations of different instrumental techniques, and quickly changing said techniques. Viennese sonatas never received any further direct development, but they are of great artistic value given the current tendencies in the modern performance practice of early music.

Keywords: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, Antonio Bertali, Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber, Georg Muffat, the 17th-century solo violin sonata in Austria and Germany, secular music at the court of Leopold I,
Viennese instrumental style in the middle of the 17th century,
the origin of the sonata

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Anastasiya A. Maltseva
Ph. D., Senior Lecturer of Music History Department
at Glinka Novosibirsk State Conservatory

Magnificats by J. S. Bach and by His Sons
with Reference to Traditions of German Musical and Rhetorical Culture

The article traces the destiny of Figurenlehre in the 18th century church music as exemplified in three works on the same text. Magnificats by J. S. Bach and by his sons Carl Philipp Emanuel and Johann Christian are analyzed with regard to typical for the 17th-century compositional practice unwritten rules of the thorough treatment of key words and phrases of the Canticle of Mary. Johann Sebastian follows the Baroque musical-rhetorical tradition with greater precision. In his sons’ Magnificats musical figures are surrounded by the new aesthetical paradigm. The author assumes that Carl Philipp Emanuel deliberately takes the musical-rhetorical tradition as his model and that Johann Christian, in contrast, reproduces only the most stable matchings of words and musical figures, creating the impression of “echo” of the Baroque canon placed in the context of nearly opera stylistics.

Keywords: Baroque, musical rhetoric, musical-rhetorical figures,
Magnificat, Johann Sebastian Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach,
Johann Christian Bach

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Denis G. Lomtev
Ph. D.; Senior Editor
of the Publishing House Buraus Musik Verlag

Manuscripts and Prints of Musical Works
in the Files of the Secret Civil Cabinet
of the Prussian King (1841–1874)

The files of the Secret Civil Cabinet give insight into the way in which musical works addressed to the King of Prussia from 1841 to 1874 were processed. This is the first time these documents have been systematically examined. The manuscripts and prints of these works reflect the king’s popularity among the citizens but, at times, they were also used by Secret Civil Cabinet to bolster his reputation.

Keywords: sociomusicology, music for occasion, Kingdom of Prussia,
a cappella music, military march

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Jeanna V. Kniazeva
Doctor of Fine Arts,
Senior Research Fellow of the Music Department
at the Russian Institute of Art History (St. Petersburg)

Jacques Handschin in Search of his Science.
Letters to Karl Krumbacher

Russian Swiss Jacques Handschin (1886, Moscow —  1955, Basle) is known today as a prominent Western musicologist of the middle 20th century, specialist for Western European medieval studies. The modern researchers are also about Handschin’s interest in music of Byzantium’s studies informed, but the background of this interest recently still remained unstudied. This article put two Handschin’s letters to the great German Byzantinologist Karl Krumbacher into the scientific circulation. These documents have recently in the Bavarian National Library (Munich) been founded. They dated from the 1908 summer and autumn. Young Handschin (who was only 22 years old) turned to the prominent specialist, asking him about a topic for his doctor dissertation as well as, possibly, about scientific protection. The letters show, that the thinking about academic (what’s more, philological, not musical) Byzantium studies lay at the origins of Jacques Handschin’s scientific mentality, when he still lived and worked in Russia, —  in Moscow, then in St. Petersburg. The next events of his life didn’t let him become Byzantinologist. Nevertheless this science —  as material as well as a special way of scientific thinking —  determined Handschin’s scientific style to a large extent: the style, which interests modern researchers in his works a lot. As well, the Byzantium studies became Handschin’s way back to Russia. It is no coincidence, till the end of his life he signed his works as “Jacques Handschin, Basle, formerly, St. Petersburg”.

Keywords: Jacques Handschin, Karl Krumbacher, academic musicology, musical byzantinology, beginning of the 20th century

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THE MODERN COMPOSITION

Nikolay Yu. Khrust
Lecturer of the Contemporary Music Subdepartment
at Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatory

The Extended Instrumental Techniques.
The Experience of Classification

In the article we attempt to consider a phenomenon of extended techniques (new playing techniques), to find a definition, which allows to distinguish new techniques and traditional playing techniques. We suggest their multidimensional classification, based on several aspects: primarily classification of instruments, kind of playing technique modification and sound result. For selecting necessary classification of musical instruments we refer to experience of organologists, who made fundamental instruments’ classifications: Hornbostel — Sachs, Shaeffner, Mann and other scholars. We build our own classification upon their typologies and try to make it possibly strict in its criteria definitions, possibly universal and possibly relevant to our goals. Considering modification of normal way of playing we try to sort techniques by “amount of strangeness”, or by “radicality”. Finally, speaking about sound appearing as a result, we propose to separate several main sound types distinguishing acoustical and psychoacoustical parameters. So, we suppose that our extended techniques classification is able to become a powerful instrument for creating of “timbre music elementary theory”, which could allow better exploration of timbral phenomena in music and appear as a “ground floor” of timbre composition analysis (like phonetics in linguistics). Higher levels of analysis, focusing on functionality of timbre units, could base on this bottom level.

Keywords: extended techniques, classification of techniques,
classification of musical instruments, organology, acoustics,
psychoacoustics, timbre composition

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WORLD MUSIC

Violetta N. Yunusova
Doctor of Fine Arts, Full Professor
of the Subdepartment of Foreign Music History
at Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatory

To the Problem of Interaction
Between Historical Musicology
and Russian Musical Oriental Studies

The article investigates the process of formation of Russian musical oriental studies in interaction with ethnomusicology from which it separated in the last century and with academic history of music. The main directions of musical oriental studies are designated: Sinology; researches of music of India and Southern Asia; Arabic, Iranian and Turkey speaking people’, Mongolian music studies. The main stages of formation of musical oriental studies are considered, scientific schools and spheres are designated: traditional music of the non-European people, including forms of musical professionalism, the music of composers in system of national culture and in communications with others professional traditions, historical researches on music of Asia, etc. The contribution of Russian and some foreign scientists to formation of this scientific field is shown.

Keywords: traditional music, historical musicology, ethnomusicology, Russian musical oriental studies, formation of the scientific direction, interrelation of scientific traditions

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MUSIC AND PAINTING

Elena V. Rovenko
Ph. D., Assistant Professor
of the Weatern European Music History Subdepartment,
Research Fellow of the Research Center for Methodology
of Historical Musicology
at Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatory

Music of Painting in the Interpretation
of Eugène Delacroix and His Fervents
(Vincent van Gogh, Odilon Redon):
Philosophical-Aesthetical Substantiation
and Means of Implementation

Musicality of visual arts is one of the most attractive art criticism subjects, which touches upon the problem of synthesis and interaction of arts. Being already shown de facto in compositions by baroque artists, musicality was comprehended as an aesthetical and philosophical category during the Romantic era, and, as we know, first of all by German thinkers. Nevertheless, the French romanticism gave not less convincing variants of interpretation of this phenomenon: both in the theory (Charles Baudelaire), and in practice (Eugène Delacroix). In spite of the fact that, according to the standard representations, Delacroix didn’t create own school, his innovations affected his contemporary masters and artists of the subsequent generation. The present article is devoted, firstly, to the aesthetic and philosophical principles which were formulated by Baudelaire and Delacroix in connection with painting of the latter and which constitute existence of the phenomenon of musicality in painting. Secondly, in focus of attention there is a special technique of painting, which helps the romantic to achieve the feature of musicality in his art. The components of this technique are the following: the innovative understanding of function of touche and brush stroke; the work with tone; the special methods of disclosure of compositional, structural and expressional opportunities of color. Each of the listed means of expression is interpreted in the dialectics of its constructive and spontaneous intensions allowing Delacroix his peculiar forming of the recipient’s viewing time. The feeling of mutual overflowing and dissolution of lines and color areas, their vector tendency to each other forces the view to follow gradually their passing in the determined direction; thereby the psychological effect of duration, formation, which is usual during music listening, is actualized. In Baudelaire’s texts similar effect gets the metaphoric name of “a color melody”, whereas the touches, strokes, lines and blurs are understood as the articulated integrity and deserve comparison with notes and chords “gravitating” to each other by the principle of complementary colors and “the rule of three tones”, which was opened by Delacroix. Searches of the romantic artist in the sphere of musicality of painting were continued by two different masters: Vincent Van Gogh, who aggravated an expression of directed-beam touches, and Odilon Redon, whose works were born spontaneously, like musical improvisations. The article reveals the features of interpretation of Delacroix’s style musicality by Van Gogh and Redon. Both artists called Delacroix’s pictures “symphonies”, meaning the harmonious whole, which is built under the rules of color harmony, like some kind of “con-sounding” of colors. The author of the article tries to show, by what means Van Gogh and Redon create such “symphonies”.

Keywords: romanticism, Charles Baudelaire, Eugène Delacroix, Odilon Redon, musicality of painting, “color melody”