Abstracts

COMMEMORATING THE 150TH ANNIVERSARY OF MOSCOW CONSERVATORY

Elena A. Takho-Godi
Doctor of Philology,
Full Professor of the Subdepartment of History of Russian Literature
at the Philology Department
of Moscow State Lomonosov University;
Head of the Research Department
at the Library of History of Russian Philosophy and Culture “Losev House”;
Senior Research Fellow at Gorky Institute of World Literature, the Russian Academy of Science

Giorgia Rimondi
Ph. D. student of the Dipartimento A.L.E.F.
at the University of Parma (Italy)

Aesthetics as a “Rigorous Science”
(on A. F. Losev’s Scientific Papers at GAChN)

This article provides a brief review of work A. F. Losev’s (1893–1988) —  the famous philosopher and professor of the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory —  at the State Academy of Art Sciences (GAChN) in the 1920s. A special attention is given to certain aspects of his work, in which Losev attempted to demonstrate that aesthetics could and should be made into a rigorous scientific discipline, which went against the dominant formalistic and psychologic tendencies in musicology of this period. Previously unknown texts of A. F. Losev’s scientific papers and subsequent discussions, recently discovered in the GAChN archive at RGALI, are published here for the first time.

Keywords: Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory, A. F. Losev,
history of Russian philosophy, aesthetics,
aesthetic disciplines, musicology,
methods of teaching

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Yury M. Butsko (1938–2015)
Full Professor
at the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory (1968–2013)

Marina P. Rakhmanova
Doctor of Fine Arts,
Leading Research Fellow
at the State Institute for Art Studies (Moscow)\

Tchaikovsky’s Orchestra

Published posthumously article of the outstanding composer, master of the orchestral writing, Professor of the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory Yuri Butsko deals with the main principles and means of Tchaikovsky’s orchestral writing seen from the composer’s point of view.

Keywords: P. I. Tchaikovsky, orchestral style,
Tchaikovsky’s orchestra, S. I. Taneev

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FROM THE HISTORY OF RUSSIAN MUSIC

Anna Giust
Ph. D., independent researcher

Sources for the Artistic Biography
of Catterino Cavos

Thanks to Catterino Cavos’s contribution to the education of the musical personnel and to the national operatic repertoire, Russian critics acknowledge him to have the most important part in the musical life of their country. The aim of the present article is to disclose inedited supplementary sources, in order to add new information useful not only for the issue of Cavos’s role in the Russian musical milieu of the early 19th-century, but also for the issue of historiography of Russian opera. These materials, mainly forming part of the collection of Central State Bakhrushin Theater Museum in Moscow, are here published for the first time. They allow to shed light on life and activity of the composer as maestro di cappella in St. Petersburg. Cavos’s activity is viewed as a transition stage between the moment when the operatic culture was imported in the Russian Empire and the time when, because of emerging national consciousness, Russian opera in itself developed. Cavos’s opera “Ivan Susanin” is understood as an intermediate passage between 18th-century comic operas and Mikhail Glinka’s “A Life for the Tsar”, which is considered the first Russian opera by Soviet musicologists.

Keywords: Catterino Cavos, Aleksey Verstovsky, Aleksey L’vov, Russian opera, Russian Court troupe, Russian national consciousness

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Anastasia P. Gribanova
Head of the Department of Artistic Education of St.-Petersburg City Creativity Palace for Young

Anna V. Bulycheva
Ph. D., Associate Professor
of the Subdepartment of Foreign Music History
at the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory

The Second String Quartet by Borodin according to Manuscript Sources:
New Facts and New Questions

Despite the fact that the Second String Quartet by Borodin is well-known, there are some unsolved problems relating to it. The manuscript sources from the National Library of Russia and St. Petersburg State Conservatory are thoroughly examined in the given article. The analysis of all the sources makes clear the main stages of Borodin’s work on the Second Quartet, the sequence of composition of each movement, and some features of the composer’s methods of work. Only two life-time performances were previously mentioned by scholars. The date of the third life-time performance of the Second Quartet is now established; and the only life-time review is entered into scientific use. The discrepancies between the full autograph score and the first (posthumous) edition are defined and systemized. So the problem should be raised, whether the above-mentioned edition corresponds to author’s intentions.

Keywords: Alexander Borodin, String Quartet no. 2, autograph, first edition, Mitrofan Belyayev, discrepancies, musical indications

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Natalia O. Vlasova
Doctor of Fine Arts,
Head of “Moscow Conservatory Press”,
Leading Research Fellow at the State Institute for Art Studies (Moscow)

Anton Rubinstein
and the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde
in Wien: An Episode in the Life of an Artist

The paper describes the history of invitation of Anton Rubinstein (1829–1894) as the artistic director of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien (Society of the Friends of Music in Vienna) and his activities as such in the 1871/72 concert season. The concert programs of Rubinstein, his reception in Vienna as pianist, as conductor and as composer by the Viennese musical public, his contacts with Austrian and German musicians are discussed. The paper is based on the unpublished original sources from the Archive of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde and other historical documents.

Keywords: Anton Rubinstein, Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien, Viennese concert life, the reception of Anton Rubinstein in Vienna as pianist, as conductor and as composer, Viennese music criticism, Franz Liszt and his oratorio “Christus”, Russian-Austrian musical connections,
the Rubinstein’s oratorio “Paradise Lost”, the opera “Feramors”

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Anna L. Rakitina
Graduate from the Ph. D. program in musicology of the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory

On the Phenomenon of the Lyrical Songs
by Sergei Rachmaninoff

The article deals with the problem of internal unity and evolution of Rachmaninoff’s romances. There is an attempt to make a notion of composer’s lyric deeper and to place this notion as a central stuff of whole his music what is demanded by interpretation of vocal chamber Rachmaninoff’s works. A similar problem was widely discussed in the musicology literature, but there Rachmaninoff’s lyric often linked with common things such as affectivity, openness, accessible to perception, love and nature themes. We think that the Rachmaninoff’s music is lyric from the inside as well and this means its special poetics. By the vocal pieces in the article discovered music phenomena of Rachmaninoff’s lyric and showed, through which structural features and music style elements reached the lyric mood of composer’s romances.

Keywords: Russian music, Rachmaninoff, romance, lyric music, relation between music and words

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Larissa L. Gerver
Doctor of Art Studies, Full Professor of Gnessins Russian Academy of Music

Stravinsky’s “Symphony of Psalms”
as a “Song of Ascents”

According to Euthymius Zigabenus, 15 “songs of ascents” (Psalms 120–134) “had this superscription since, more than the other Psalms, they lead the people of God from the confusion of the present life to the heavenly Jerusalem”. The songs of ascents, as well as the рsalm texts in the “Symphony of Psalms” (Ps. 39:13–14 in the First movement; Ps. 40:2–4 in the Second movement; Ps. 150 in the Third movement), begin with the cry and supplication to God (Ps. 120 and 39) and conclude with praising (Ps. 134 and 150). The idea of ascension is expressed in music through the aspiration to the finale. This is the “new song”, which was told about in the end of the Second movement (Ps. 39:3). The ascent from weeping to praise also was expressed through the change of stylistic prototypes: Gregorian chant, baroque fugue and an “echo of the Russian liturgy” (S. Savenko). According to St. Gregory of Nyssa, in the 150th рsalm which finishes the last of five parts (“steps”) of the Book of Psalms, “uninterrupted praise to God” is heard. Something similar is present in the third movement of the “Symphony”, which was written on the text of this Psalm. The call to praise God “with the sound of the trumpet, with the lute and harp, with the timbrel and dance, with stringed instruments and flutes, with loud cymbals, with clashing cymbals” finds its expression not only in the diversity of choral and instrumental sound. There are also repeated “Laudate” motifs which consist of one, two, three… tones; performed loudly or softly; chanted, melodious, using marcato or light staccato; producing unisons, chords or imitations. The article contains a number of examples —  a kind of “dictionary” of the praise motifs which includes musical quotations as well. Аmong them — “Khvalite” (“Praise”) from Rachmaninoff’s “All-Night Vigil” composed of the same sounds b–c–c, as one of “Laudate” motifs from the III movement of the Symphony.

Keywords: songs of ascents, Stravinsky, “Symphony of Psalms”, ascension, praise of God, the “dictionary” of praise motifs, musical quotations

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REVIEWS

Julia Wexler
Two Joseph Shilinger’s Lives

[Two Joseph Schillinger’s Lives. First Life: Russia. Second Life: USA. Moscow, 2015. In Russian]

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Tatiana Baranova
Stravinsky After “The Rite”

[Carr, Maureen A. After the Rite: Stravinsky’s Path to Neoclassicism
(1914–25)
. Oxford; N. Y., 2014.]

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