2011 № 1(4)
Turkish Topoi in Mozart’s Works
The paper deals with Mozart’s works with oriental/Turkish subjects, or somehow connected with “Janitschar” music of his times. Mozart’s orientalism is regarded here not as a tribute to the wide-spread mode, but as an expression of the composer’s attitude to some very important cultural, social, and political problems of the Josephinist epoch. The works of 1780s express Mozart’s inner faith in humanistic ideals (“Die Entfürung aus dem Serail”), his taste for colourful strangeness, and his personal support to the emperor Joseph II during his war against Turkey in alliance with Russia. However, even creating his highly tendentious pieces in 1788–1789, Mozart was keeping in mind that mercy must stay above vengeance, and that mutual understanding might be more fruitful than hostility.
Keywords: Mozart, Turkey, Joseph II, Catherine II, Vienna, Singspiel,
Janitscharenmusik, “Die Entfuerung aus dem Serail”
Chant quotation in Mozart’s music: a hidden meaning
The article deals with some plainchant quotations in W. A. Mozart’s works, both liturgical (first of all, masses) and secular (among them, symphonies). Analyzing unexpected connections between various works the author comes to the conclusion that these quotations help us to reveal hidden meanings and connotations of Mozart’ music.
Keywords: 18th century, Mozart, quoting, secular, church
Dies illa: the motif of “the punishment of God”
in two chefs-d’oeuvre of W. A. Mozart
This paper focuses on religious and moral aspects in two of Mozart’s late masterpieces, his opera Il dissoluto punito, ossia Il Don Giovanni and the Requiem. The analysis of Da Ponte’s libretto and musical dramaturgy calls attention to two important features of the opera: first, its heroes’ refusal to abide by “the duty of honor” (the bloody vengeance on Don Juan), and second, the composer’s horror in the face of the sinner’s punishment from above, which according to the laws of reasonable justice he ought to place in the end of the work. The text and music of several important scenes suggest a reflection of the medieval Dies irae sequence in the “punishment of the libertine”. Directly employing the text of the sequence in his last work, Mozart was able to openly express his own vision of the Last Judgment. Full of horror, the author’s part of Requiem’s score reveals the anxiety of a sinner waiting for a just punishment. The essence of medieval sequence, with its hopes set on the grace of God and the triumph of justice, does not find a place in Mozart’s music. With no faith in the mercy of traditional deities, the dying composer left the world the few rhymes of Lacrimosa. In accordance with Mozart’s sense of morality, sinners and the just men (if there are any) are deplored alike, and remain undifferentiated in the piece…
Keywords: W. A. Mozart, L. Da Ponte, “Don Juan”, Mozart’s “Requiem”,
Dies irae sequence, libretto, music and words
Gustav Mahler’s Tenth Symphony:
from the note text to the sound realization.
About two orchestral versions of unfinished work
(versions by Deryck Cooke and Rudolf Barshai)
In this article discusses the problems associated with the completion of the unfinished Mahler’s Tenth Symphony on example of the third part of the symphony («Purgatorio»). For comparison selected orchestral version by Deryck Cooke and Rudolf Barshai, showing two different approaches to reconstruction of the work. The article contains description of the available Mahler’s manuscripts and analysis of different problems arising in connection with the completion of the symphony: textual difficulties, articulation, texture, timbre development, timbre modulation, form in its relation with the orchestration etc., with detail analysis of the scores. Attempted to formulate judgments about the adequacy of both editions to the Mahler’s style and technique.
Keywords: Mahler, The Tenth Symphony, Cooke, Barshai
Under the horizon of Prokofiev’s Diary: about Gorchakov
The article is about G. N. Gorchakov — one of the secretary of S. S. Prokofiev. Young musician, who deciphered musical and literature manuscripts of Prokofiev, who was his amanuensis, during some years was a guide of literature and musical thought of the composer, completed some large scores of Prokofiev. Together, they were connected not only by music, but also by same religious doctrine preferred: Christian Science. This community shows the publication of the Gorchakov’s letter to Lina Prokofiev of 1984. In this letter the matters of religion are mentioned, besides, Gorchakov comments the opera “War and Peace”. At the episodes on shooting of documentary about Prokofiev, in the behavior and sayings of modest secretary from time to time one can find unknown, sometimes unexpectable sides of the portrait of Great Prokofiev.
Keywords: G. N. Gorchakov, Prokofiev, Lina Prokofiev, correspondence, Christian Science
On the history of the relationship
between Baldassare Galuppi and Russian Imperial Court
The invitation of Italian musicians to Russia played a crucial role in the history of 18th century Russian musical culture. This paper presents new documents shedding light on the relationship between the famous Italian composer B. Galuppi and Russian Imperial Court, in particular, the correspondence of Galuppi and Catherine the Great (dated 1780), which provides evidence in favour of Galuppi’s significant contribution to the development of the young Russian composer D. Bortnyanski. Although Galuppi spent only 3 years in Russia (1765–68), his relations with the Russian court lasted almost till his death. As found in the present work, this activity was reflected vividly by one of Galuppi’s contemporaries in the descriptions of celebrations on the occasion of the visit of the Russian heir Pavel Petrovich and his wife Maria Feodorovna to Venice in 1782.
Keywords: B. Galuppi, D. Bortnyanski, 18th century music, Catherine the Great, Maria Feodorovna, Pavel I.
«I write the score absolutely anew»,
or unknown circumstances of one opera statement
(About an opera “Yemelyan Pugachyov” of M. V. Koval
in orchestration of D. R. Rogal-Levitskiy)
This paper reveals previously unknown details of the première of M. V. Koval’s opera “Yemelyan Pugachyov” at the Leningrad Opera and Ballet Theatre in 1942. Based on the examination of partly unpublished correspondence of the composer D. R. Rogal-Levitskiy found in the archive of the musicologist V. A. Kiselyov, the author gains new insight into the story of the opera’s composition.
Keywords: Rogal-Levitskiy, Koval, opera, orchestration, “Yemelyan Pugachyov”
Three Images of Ockeghem (a historiographic essay)
The article represents the critical survey of different views on Ockeghem’s output that were developed in musicological studies of XIX–XX centuries. In the earliest concept of Ockeghem’s music, elaborated by such scholars as J. N. Forkel, G. Baini and R. G. Kisewetter, the accent was put on the technical aspects of his art — e.g., on the tradition of “riddle canons”. This view also dominated in the Russian musicology of XIX – beginning of the XX century. The new, ‘mystical’ and ‘irrational’, image of Ockeghem’s music was formulated by H. Besseler in the early thirties of the XX century and was elaborated later by some of his pupils (P. H. Lang, R. Stephan, M. Bukofzer, E. Lowinsky). In the late sixties new concept arose, which was mainly concentrated on the problems of proportions and number symbolism (W. Elders, M. Henze and others). In this period the ‘rational’ image of Ockeghem prevailed over ‘mystical’ and ‘irrational’ one. In our days we see the process of integration of different ideas, different views on Ockeghem’s music into one unified, though complex and polyphonic, image of the master, whose art was equally rational and mystical (L. Bernstein).
Keywords: Ockeghem, historiography, number, symbol, mysticism
the union of the Celestial and the Earthly
in a “madrigal” mass
This paper considers the problem of coexistence of the spiritual and the secular aspects in a specific Renaissance kind of mass, so-called “madrigal”. In the context of aesthetics, philosophical currents of that time and, in particular, the conception of Love, some peculiarities of the madrigal’s interpretation by the Renaissance composers are revealed. The phenomena of a mass on a madrigal source is examined on an example from the G. P. da Palestrina’s works (the composer’s mass “Qual’e più grand’o Amore” written on the C. de Rore’s madrigal of the same name).
Keywords: “madrigal” mass, madrigal, Love, Palestrina
“Rhythmica oratio” and its paraphrases
in the Lutheran singing-tradition
The article deals with one of the most popular in the XVII century hymn translated into the German over and over again. Here it is told about the authorship, figurative and structural features of the text and its paraphrases are considered. The special attention is paid chorals and new melodies that are sung these texts.
Keywords: “Rhythmica oratio”, Rist, Gerhardt, choral
Topoi of Brahms’ Music
The paper considers topoi of Brahms’ music as a system. In contrast to 18th century rhetorical commonplaces, it involves nonconventional, but, nevertheless, well-defined and recognizable complexes of musical means of expression: their stability can be explained by the unity of meaning throughout all composer’s works. Brahms usually uses traditional semantic elements: burdens, simple chordal style, “horn fifths” form the topos of pastorale; organ points and rhythmic ostinato, referring to similar images of Bach’s music, correspond to the topos of bliss. However, the apparent “traditionality” screens the peculiar romantic Weltanschauung of the composer, who transforms the musical symbols by providing them with new, individual sense. Brahms’ music does not promise consolation to sufferers in the other world, but gives it hinc et nunc, “here and now”, — not in thinking about the bliss in the future, but rather in its actual feeling.
Keywords: Brahms, semantics, topos, musical means of expression,
choral works, vocal lyric, “German Requiem”
Eric Satie’s “Socrate”:
Musique d’ameublement or repetitive music?
French composer Erik Satie foresaw in his artistic output many musical trends of the subsequent decades, including minimalism. The article examines the symphonic drama “Socrate”, the composers’ pinnacle work in which many of his stylistic innovations were incorporated.
Keywords: Satie, “Socrate”, repetitive music
Jazz in Zimmermann’s works:
polystilism or utopia of freedom?
The article summarizes knowledge about the usage of jazz music in works of B. A. Zimmermann and exposes the reasons of composer’s interest to this phenomenon. The history of relationship of Zimmermann to jazz is examined in a broad context, from his first experiments in the area of entertainment music and to the large-scale projects with the professional freejazz team — “Manfred Schoof Quintet”. The analysis of the series of works enables to classify Zimmermann’s jazz idioms, to define meaningful context that characterizes their emergence. The usage of jazz elements is presented in connection with the idea of Zimmermann’s “pluralistic method” (kindred to polystilism), however special position of jazz music in outlook and artistic practice of the composer is stated. In his texts about music alongside with musical works (which by tradition contain lots of literary allusions), Zimmermann conceived jazz improvisation as one of the brightest manifestations of the “freedom” in contemporary art. Improvisation of jazzmen, getting over the determinism of composition structures, often becomes a sign of human’s free choice, including the freedom to part his life — an action that is considered to be the only true manifestation of freedom in the Zimmermann’s last years’ compositions.
Keywords: B. A. Zimmermann, Jazz, free jazz, improvisation, blues, time,
Pound, Camus, Canetti, lamentation, death, freedom