2012 № 1(8)
Sarti, Euripides, and the «Third Rome»
The historical performance «The early Reign of Oleg» written by Catherine II and staged as a semi-opera in 1790 can be regarded a part of Catherine’s ambitious «Greek project» ideologically rooted in the old concept of Moscow reign (and the Russian empire in general) as the «Third Rome», the heir of both the ancient Greece and Byzantium. Giuseppe Sarti, the Prince Potyomkin’s maestro di cappella, was personally commissioned by the Empress to compose music for the last act of the play which contained a vast quotation from Euripides «Alkestis». The unusual task provoked the unique attempt of reconstructing the ancient theatre with genuine text (in Russian translation) and the music in «Greek» modes, containing also a melody from Pyndar’s ode, published by Athanasius Kircher in 1650 and regarded in those times as authentic. Sarti wrote not only the music, but also an «Explanation» describing his efforts to compose the Euripidean episode in the «Greek» taste. Although the modality of Sarti’s music can be disputed today as dubious, his experiment surpassed even Gluck’s reform operas and found no equivalents in contemporary music.
Keywords: Giuseppe Sarti, Catherine II, Greece, N. A. Lvov, «Early Reign of Oleg», «Alkestis»,
Euripides, theatre, opera, ode, Greek modes, modality
Olga V. Zhestkova
La muette de Portici and Its Social Meaning
in Francein the Twenties and Thirties of the 19th Century
The Première of D. F. E. Auber’s and E. Scribe’s La muette de Portici is characterized in this paper as the important event in the political life in France on the eve of the July Revolution. The peculiarities of the libretto and the staging are examined, as well as comments in official and opposition periodicals. The notion of the role of La muette de Portici in the French musical theatre’s history is made more exact.
Keywords: «La muette de Portici», grand opéra, July Revolution, libretto, Scribe, Auber
On the Manuscript of the Final Chorus for Khovanshchina
This paper presents a research of Stravinsky’s manuscript of the Final Chorus for Mussorgsky’s «Khovanshchina» in Diaghilev’s version. During almost the whole of the 20th century this manuscript was kept at the house of a conductor Grigory Furman in Leningrad. Only in 1994 it became a museum piece and never yet had been analyzed. In the first part of this paper the history of publication of the manuscript at the Publishing House of V. Bessel in 1914 is reconstructed on the basis of epistolary sources. The second (main) part presents a detailed source study of Stravinsky’s manuscript.
Keywords: Stravinsky, Vasily Bessel, final chorus for «Khovanshchina», manuscript, source study
A New Role of Chalumeau
(about Intertextual Parallels to A. Lloyd-Webber’s Musical
«The Phantom of the Opera»)
The paper deals with the famous musical «The Phantom of the Opera» in which some panorama of operatic styles from the 18th to the 20th centuries is represented. The author pays special attention to surname of invented composer Chalumeau who is the fictious creator of grand opéra «Hannibal». Some parallels between Chalumeau’s artistic cast of mind and historical «biography» of his «double» — the woodwind musical instrument of the 17th and 18th centuries — are revealed.
Keywords: сhalumeau, musical, A. Lloyd-Webber, «The Phantom of the Opera», grand opéra, G. Meyerbeer
On the right hand fingerings in lute publications of Nicolas Vallet
This paper proposes the analysis of the right hand fingerings as they appear in the lute music of Nicolas Vallet. Vallet uses two different notation systems for the right hand fingerings. The first one is traditional for 16th— and early 17th-century lute tablature: in the monophonic passages, the odd tablature letters don’t have any additional sign, while the even ones are marked with a dot. The dot normally meaning the right hand index finger and its absence — the thumb, this system, at first glance, seems to indicate the standard Renaissance way of playing such passages: by thumb–index alternative strokes.
In other Vallet’s works, the odd notes are marked with a small double stroke, which means, according to Vallet’s preface and to many other 17th-century sources, the middle finger. So, the passages notated in this way must be played by the middle–index alternation.
The question put in the article is: do these notational differences correspond to real differences in playing technique intended by Vallet, or are they merely «differences on paper»?
Four hypothesis have been considered: (1) stylistic differences between the works may be responsible of using various ways of fingering; (2) a probable link of the two ways of fingering with the use of different models of lutes (7-, 8-, 9- or 10-courses); (3) the evolution in Vallet’s personal instrumental technique; (4) the differences as they are observed in the tablature, are just notational and don’t imply two different techniques.
The study of the whole content of the 2 volumes of Vallet’s «Le Secret des Muses», the parallel analysis of his use of the left hand fingerings and ornamental signs, as well as study of other 17th century sources concerning right hand technique bring us to consider the 4th hypothesis as the most probable. Probably already in 1615, the middle–index alternation technique must have been the main one (at least when playing upon the first three courses) for N. Vallet and for many other lutists, while the older thumb–index fingering remained an alternative technique and used for some special cases (such as playing passages upon lower courses).
Keywords: Vallet, Besardus (Bésard), Piccinini, «Le Secret des Muses», lute
(7-course, 8-course, 9-course, 10-course), tablature,
fingerings, right hand technique, passages, diminutions,
(contrapuntic) fantasia, variations, passamezzo,
courante, choral, psalm, baroque
Johann Joahim Quantz
Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen. Das V. Hauptstück. Von den Noten, ihrer Geltung, dem Tacte, den Pausen, und den übrigen musikalischen Zeichen
Russian translation and comments by Ekaterina Dryazzhina
The series of extracts from the J. J. Quantz’s treatise closely related to performance practice is continued in this publication. In the translator’s comments the issues of baroque mode and tact doctrines and, especially, their terminology are clarified.
Keywords: early music, history of music performance, Johann Joahim Quantz, Baroque flute
The Traverso — on the History of the Instrument
As addition to the translation of Johann Joachim Quantz’ «Versuch einer Anleitung, die Flöte traversiere zu spielen» made by E. Dryazzhina this essay comprehends a short history about the transverse flute types of the baroque and classical period, its beginnings, its design and the development throughout the 18th century Europe. A special emphasis is placed on the traversos built by Johann Joachim Quantz, flute maker and flute teacher of Frederick the Great.
Keywords: traverso, baroque flute, classical flute, flute makers, Johann Joachim Quantz, Frederick the Great
Where the Music Ends, Enters the Word…
(Voice in Nikolai Korndorf’s Instrumental Works)
Inclination to the synthesis of the various techniques as well as the genres and related musical-linguistic techniques is characteristic for Nicholai Korndorf’s creative process. The point of the article is the specific use of the human voice in Korndorf’s compositions. Singing without words in the instrumental pieces, which is entrusted to the performer (not singer) is interpreted as an excess of the achieved level of expression and going beyond what is possible in this genre. A voice in Korndorf’s instrumental works is a symbol of a WORD, an address to us, a message to us loaded with meaning, which is not expressible in verbal language (in this case we can speak on the «non-verbal semantics»). Thus, for Korndorf the word (in its broad sense) is not at all a formal element of the composition, it’s a semantic phenomenon: the intonation-word, as well as in his work we find the intonation-timbre (a specific, sonoristic plan) and the intonation-gesture (in the case of instrumental theater).
Keywords: Korndorf, synthesis, voice, word, non-verbal semantics, intonation
Classical music in Hollywood cinema
Classical music has been one of the significant «collaborators» of Hollywood cinema for about a century. And during all this period composers have been continuously perfecting their skills of citing. To date there’ve formed numerous methods of employment of classics in a film music. This paper represents an attempt to summarize and systematize them.
Keywords: Hollywood, film score, soundtrack, citing, classical music
H. Bergson’s Intuitive Method:
to a Problem of Methodology
of the Humanitarian Disciplines
This publication represents the methodology of Henri Bergson in a context of the problematics of modern humanitarian knowledge. In the first part of the article criteria of Bergson’s differentiation of two ways of knowledge (rational and intuitive) and two forms of representation of its results (conceptual and figurative) are analyzed. On the basis of images Bergson develops special qualitative images-concepts (including well-known la durée and élan vital). Art as the area of human spirit extremely close, on Bergson, intuitive philosophy is considered in the second part. Also the author gives some examples of applying the qualitative concepts-images for research of art of 19th and 20th centuries boundary.
Keywords: Bergson, intuitive method, concept, image, qualitative concepts-images,
primary (philosophical) intuition, la durée (duration), élan vital (a vital impulse),
art, the life of color, material development
The Still Urgent Issue
Music and School on the Threshold of New Century (1999)
In view of Yury Kholopov eightieth anniversary The Journal of Moscow Conservatory begins the publication of articles from the archive of the musicologist. The topic of the paper Music and School on the Threshold of New Centur (1999) is the convergence of the teaching musical theory and the contemporary art music. Yu. Kholopov criticizes the dissociation of theoretical disciplines in the curriculum and proposes the new educational course, the contemporary composition theory. At present, when the course is included in the state educational standards, the ideas of Yu. Kholopov can be useful for its teaching.
Keywords: musical education, contemporary art music, contemporary composition theory