2012 № 3(10)
Musical Journey through Moscow.
Concert Reviews and Other Entries
The publication represents selected pages from the listener’s Diary which covers events in the musical life of Moscow from 1974 to 1991. Besides the music and the peculiarities of its execution, the author’s attention is attracted by some external points that made up the atmosphere of the Moscow concerts of that time: the audience and its appreciation of the performed works.
Keywords: the music life in Moscow 1974–1991, Alexey Lyubimov, Mark Pekarsky, Tatyana Grindenko, Gidon Kremer, Ivan Sokolov, Bernard Haitink, Svyatoslav Richter, Erich Leinsdorf, Claudio Abbado
Some Features of Form and Harmony
in the First Part of Mahler’s Tenth Symphony
This paper deals with some specific features of Mahler’s musical language that connect his latest work with the new tendencies in the 20th-century music. The author analyses the structure of a harmonic vertical, influence of the harmonic series on the harmony, some specific techniques of elaboration and the new principles of musical form.
Keywords: Gustav Mahler, Tenth Symphony, harmony, musical form, harmonic series
The Heritage of the Baroque Orchestration
in Haydn’s Early Symphonies: Colla Parte Technique
The сolla parte technique is one of the nexus between the Baroque and early Classical orchestration. In the article the connection between the orchestral style of Haydn’s early symphonies and the previous Baroque epoch is retraced by the example of colla parte technique. The colla parte phenomenon is considered rather extensive — not only as written instructions for an instrument to play by the part of another one, but also as a technique of total doubling even in the absence of a corresponding designation. The special attention is given to the questions connected with rendering the bassoon and viola parts which, as a rule, were not written in the score in detail, while playing colla parte.
Keywords: J. Haydn, orchestra in the early Classical period, history of orchestral styles, colla parte
From Scriabin to the Second Avant-garde:
Why Is Everything That Surrounds Us the Music?
The paper defines the relation of musical conceptions of Scriabin and the post-war avant-garde composers. Scriabin’s world view was being formed at the moment when the romantic idea about the artistry of the whole world with music being the heart of any art was transforming into the avant-guard conception (the music is all around us). To the greatest extent its uniqueness is reflected in the «Mysterium» project which became the source for the 20th-century music expansion into the life around us. In the historical and cultural environment where the ideas of theurgical and mysterial art had been in the air for a long time Scriabin foresaw the absolute and total fusion of music and physical worlds — such a dissolution of matter in the music, which is impossible to imagine in our world. His later work is the part of epochal revolution in the understanding of music and the musical: the musical material has ceased to be fully separated from the real, physical world. This revolution, just in the present perspective, was felt by J. Cage who has put it into practice in his own way.
Keywords: A. N. Scriabin, J. Cage, K. Stockhausen, V. Solovyov, Silver Age, avant-garde music, absolute music, «Mysterium», theurgy
A. Scriabin and Art Nouveau
The article is devoted to Scriabin and his connection with Art Nouveau. The modern aesthetics is manifested in his music creation, in his life and his observations. The author attempts to comprehend the essence of Scriabin’s gift and the specific of his music by the view of Art Nouveau. The most important features of this interaction are the follow things: cult of beauty, attention to details, ornamentation, category of time, emancipation of timbre and rhythm.
Keywords: A. Scriabin, Art Nouveau, Russian music
K. D. Balmont and A. N. Scriabin: The Creative Parallels
The article applies to connection between two gifted persons of the Silver Age — Balmont and Scriabin. The author considers their personal contacts, similarity of their aesthetic views. The author ponders over Balmont’s influence on Scriabin’s poetry. Special attention is paid to the influence of Balmont’s poetry on the literary works of Scriabin.
Keywords: Silver Age, K. D. Balmont, A. N. Scriabin, Scriabin poetry, Balmont poetry
Music as a Matter of Philosophy:
Prince Vladimir Odoevsky and
the Origins of the Moscow Conservatory
The paper deals with an aspect of the manifold philosophical works of the outstanding figure in the 19th-century Russian culture Prince Vladimir Fyodorovich Odoevsky (1804–1869). Being the aknowledged classic of the music criticism, one of the ideologists of the Moscow Conservatory, in his judgments about music Odoevsky proceeded from a philosophical setting of a special kind. Despite the different stands, which Odoevsky took in different periods of his work, the original idea of his «philosophy of music» remained the same. This is the setting on a holistic view: music may only be the subject of science if it is considered in the fullest possible context — historical, ethnographic, aesthetic, physicalist, etc. Odoevsky derived the intuition from the early German romantics and idealists from whom he also took the idea of «organic» development as opposed to the «mechanical». Odoevsky’s success as the music critic who discovered the music of Glinka and also as a pioneer in the study of Russian traditional music, both Church and folk, was made possible in no small measure due to his philosophical grounding, rare in Russia in that time. In later Odoevsky’s works the setting on a wholeness is a «regulative idea» but in the music pedagogy, particularly in «Besedy» (Conversations) in 1862 (the meetings attended by N. Rubinstein, the founder of the Moscow Conservatory), it is implemented as a methodological principle.
Keywords: V. F. Odoevsky, Russian philosophy of music, the unified theory of art, Glinka, philosophy of education
On the Trail of «People’s Faith»
(N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov’s «The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevroniya» and I. F. Stravinsky’s «Les noces»)
In the paper the works of the two great Russian composers, the pupil and the teacher, are considered as the attempts to convey the images of people’s faith: Belsky and Rimsky-Korsakov seek for it in the darkness of people’s consciousness and recreate it as a whole with the help of «far-reaching amendments»; Stravinsky represents the people’s faith as it may seem to a sober-minded and a little bit cynical observer. However, in both cases, with all the author’s desire to stick precisely to the style of Russian folklore (spiritual poetry in the opera, wedding songs in the dance cantata), the artistic whole expresses meanings relevant to the philosophical and religious explorations among the Russian intelligentsia. Rimsky-Korsakov and Belsky offer educated public faith more perfect than the customs and dogmas of the established church (the beauty of a transformed world in their work bears the mark of the tragic escape from reality). Stravinsky and Diaghilev present «Les Noces» to foreigners as the pictures of the «true Orthodoxy», possibly in a hidden polemic against nihilism of the older intellectuals.
Keywords: N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, V. I. Belsky, I. F. Stravinsky, «The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevroniya», « Les noces», history of Russian opera, Ballets russes, «people’s faith», Old Belief, libretto
Johann Joahim Quantz
Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen.
Die VIII und IX Hauptstücke
Russian translation and comments by Ekaterina Dryazzhina
The series of extracts from the J. J. Quantz’s treatise related closely to performance practice is continued in this publication. In the translator’s comments the doctrine of small ornaments (grace notes, trills) is interpreted as a phenomenon of gallant style; its connection with the propositions of the other German treatises of the second half of the 18th century covering the issue is retraced.
Keywords: early music, history of music performance, Baroque flute, gallant style, J. J. Quantz,
C. Ph. E. Bach, F. W. Marpurg, ornamentation, Vorschlag, Triller, fingering
The London Notebooks of Joseph Haydn
Russian translation, preface and introductory article by Elena Matveyeva,
comments by Anna Loseva
This paper is the first Russian translation of one of the most interesting historical documents — Joseph Haydn’s London Notebooks. In short paragraphs, not connected with each other and sometimes rather scrappy, the great composer appears versatile and interested not only in music but also in science, literature, social events, entertainments and amusing incidents. Haydn clearly did not intend his notes for press; they were just to remind him of what he had experienced, of people he had met and, generally, of all he had considered significant or uncommon. Some notes are rather detailed and contain curious observations, but very often Haydn confined himself to hints which were to be clear only to him — such vague allusions seem not to lend themselves to exact decryption. This publication presents the translation of the First Notebook with commentary; it is supplied with an introductive article dealing with the history of the first Haydn’s visit to London and also the Chronicle of this visit.
Keywords: J. Haydn, The London Notebooks, music life in England in 1790ies, I. P. Salomon,
Salomon Concerts, Handel Commemoration, The Professional Concert
Why Did Prokofiev Write the «Classical Symphony»?
Publication by Ivan Starostin
In the paper by Yu. N. Kholopov the ingenious supposition about Prokofiev’s reasons to create the «Classical Symphony» is made. Interpreting the number of the composer’s statements, the scientist suggests that Prokofiev wrote his First Symphony as a «real» graduate work instead of the failed product of the same genre composed in the summer of 1908 to the graduation from the St. Petersburg Conservatory in 1909. In the analytical part of the paper it is shown that, while working at the Symphony, the composer aligned not only with the style of his beloved Viennese classics, but also with the specific patterns of classical forms drawn from textbooks. All the more the numerous «jokes of genius», the intentional violations of school rules addressed to an imaginary examination board, are impressive.
Keywords: S. S. Prokofiev, N. Ya. Myaskovsky, «Classical Symphony», Saint Petersburg Conservatory,
classical theory of composition, musical form