2012 № 4 (11)
Self-Consciousness within National Musical Traditions as an Important Constitutive Factor of the Identity and Personality
in the Composer’s Creative Work
This paper discusses the problems of the formation of composers’ schools in the former Soviet Central Asia and the Soviet Eastern republics in a totalitarian regime. Special attention is paid to the initial phase of the interaction between the professional music of the oral tradition in this region (maqam, mugam) and European forms of professionalism. Along with it the paper surveys the discussions in press around the development of the national musical culture. Self-Consciousness of the national musical tradition is highlighted as an important aspect of the development of the modern music in the Commonwealth of Independent States as well as in the manifestations of the composer’s personality.
Keywords: Identity of the national tradition,
composer’s personality, music of Central Asia
The Concept of Orientalism in Russian 20th Century Musicology
(based on the Manuscripts and the Published Materials)
The article is dedicated to the study of evolution of the Russian musical orientalistic concept in the Russian musicological science of the 20th century. The author traces the dynamics of the thought on the subject known as «the Russian music on the East» (B. Asafiev). The researches and the published materials which reflect the gradual expansion of the aesthetic, philosophical and theoretical horizons of the study of the orientalism are analyzed. From the category of «orientalism» in the professional art of the classical tradition to the «dialogue of cultures» of the East and West at the turn of the 20th and the 21th centuries — is the «trajectory» of this study.
Keywords: orientalism, cultural dialogue between the East and the West,
world music culture, bordering cultures
Mikhail F. Gnesin on the System of Modes in Jewish Music (Based on the Materials of the Composer’s Archive)
The author introduces and studies an unknown manuscript of Mikhail Gnesin (1883–1957) dated from May 1929 and discovered in the Russian State Archive of Literature and Art (fund 2954, inventory 1, no. 124, pp. 35–63). Gnesin proposed an original approach of constructing a strictly organized and a somewhat symmetrical modal system of Jewish music from the Ashkenazi tradition, taken in its entirety from Biblical cantillation to folklore, in the unity of all sacral and secular genres. The choice of the proposed six-mode system (which the author calls “Jewish hexaechos” [from Greek ἑξάηχος — six modes]) is substantiated on the basis of an assumed three-octave Phrygian scale. For the first time, the symmetrical modal system discovered by Gnesin boldly takes into account non-tempered tuning and various (descending and ascending) melodic movements, as well as potentialities of modulation inherent to the system. The article is dedicated to the memory of Alexander Gorkovenko (1939–1972), a dear friend and colleague who wrote both on a modal system and on the Jewish music.
Keywords: Mikhail Gnesin, manuscript, Jewish (Ashkenazi) music, system of six modes, problem of tuning, correct sounds of unclear pitch
The collection of musical forms in Petrucci’s Laude libro primo and Laude libro secondo (1508)
Diversity of principles of musical organization in the Renaissance laudas apparently has to do with the cantasi come practice. The laudesi borrowed music from the vast range of genres. Consequently lauda absorbed both the new fixed forms of the popular poetry and latin prose texts that supposed quite different formative impulses.
The article is aimed to demonstrate different types of musical form in Petrucci’s Laude libro primo and Laude libro secondo, we propose the musical analysis of several compositions.
Keywords: lauda, Petrucci, Dammonis, poetic musical form,
strambotto, capitolo, oda, sonnet, barzelletta, ballata, frottola
Strumenti Antichi e Moderni
in the Descriptions of Music Rooms
of Agostino Amadi and Antonio Goretti
(towards the Problem of the Sources’ Interpretation)
The Renaissance inherited from the Middle Ages its confusing musical terminology and the habit of tracing roots of the musical instruments back to the antiquity. In this paper we examine the testimonies concerning the A. Amadi and A. Goretti’s musical instruments’ collections, the first of which is made by F. Sansovino in his treatise Venetia città nobilissima et singolare (1581) and the other is included in the foreword to A. Piccinini’s Intavolatura di liuto, et di chitarrone, libro primo (1623). Both authors praising merits of the collections qualify the instruments as antichi and moderni.
The adjective moderni is undoubtedly pertinent to the instruments which were in common use at the time. The interpretation of antico, on the other hand, poses a problem since it can be potentially applied both to the near past and to the remote antiquity. We analyze the descriptions of Sansovino and Piccinini in the context of wide historical and cultural background and make an attempt to find out whether they talk about truly antique instruments or just about the ones which had come out of use by the time of writing and belong to the period from the second half of the 15th until the beginning of the 16th century. This analysis leads us to the conclusion that a widely accepted interpretation, introduced in the works of J. von Schlosser and E. Winternitz, according to which the Amadi’s collection contained musical instruments imitating the antique ones, needs to be revised.
Keywords: Agostino Amadi, Francesco Sansovino, Antonio Goretti,
Alessandro Piccinini, music room, musical instruments,
Johann Joahim Quantz
Versuch einer Anweisung
die Flöte traversiere zu spielen.
Das X Hauptstück
Russian translation and comments by Ekaterina Dryazzhina
The series of extracts from the J. J. Quantz’s treatise that are closely related to performance practice is continued in this publication. The parts of the preceding chapters which are mentioned by Quantz in this summarizing section are indicated in the translator’s notes. Moreover, some aesthetic and technological issues are clarified, in particular, the expression die Bewegung der Brust that is important for the contemporary performance practice is analyzed.
Keywords: early music, history of music performance, Baroque flute, J. J. Quantz, methods of teaching the historical flutes, ornamentation, French style of performance, Italian style of performance, fingering, breathing
The Second London Notebook (1791–1792)
Russian translation by Elena Matveyeva,
comments by Anna Loseva
This paper continues the publication of the first Russian translation of Joseph Haydn’s London Notebooks. In short paragraphs, not connected to each other and sometimes rather scrappy — the great composer appears versatile and interested not only in music but also in science, literature, social life and entertainments, amusing incidents. It is clear that Haydn did not intend his notes to be published; they were just to remind him and only of what he had experienced, of people he had met and, generally, of all he had considered significant or uncommon. Some notes are rather detailed and contain curious observations, but it is very often that Haydn confined himself to the hints which were clear for him only — such vague allusions cannot always be deciphered in exact way. This publication presents the translation of the Second notebook with commentary.
Keywords: J. Haydn, The London Notebooks, music life in England in 1790ies, I. P. Salomon, Salomon Concerts
Maxim V. Melnikov
of Ferruccio Busoni’s Literary Heritage
This article deals with the destiny of the literary heritage of Busoni in Russia and contains the Russian translation of several articles from Busoni’s On the Oneness of Music (Von der Einheit der Musik).
Keywords: Ferruccio Busoni, literary heritage, book «On the Oneness of Music» («Von der Einheit der Musik») by Busoni
of the Wind Ensemble Classes
The article summarizes the experience of teaching the classical wind quintet (flute, oboe, clarinet, horn and bassoon) at the Moscow Conservatory. There are brilliant works for such ensembles created by P. Hindemith, G. Ligeti, H. Villa-Lobos, J.‑M. Damaz, D. Milhaud, F. Poulenc, but for in our country music for wind instruments is not popular, there is no any constant concert band in this sphere. In the educational practice, however, the wind ensemble classes are of a great use; they allow to acquire such skills (the sense of artistic leadership, fine work on balance, articulation, intonation) that can not be worked out while rehearsing with the orchestra. The main task of the teacher is to inculcate into students the culture of playing together with joy and pleasure. All of his skills of psychologist should be involved.
Keywords: music pedagogy, music psychology, the wind ensemble,
articulation, intonation, balance
The Extended Techniques for Cello
in the 20th Century:
an Attempt of Systematization
The article deals with the new cello techniques that have been brought into the musical practice since 1950. The classical cello technique has been developed during this period actively through the composer,s and performer,s research and also through the influence of different styles and instrumental techniques. The purpose of this article is to provide sufficient information concerning the range of currently new cello techniques. The object of the present paper is to make a catalogue and a notation guide at the same time, as far as to give enough information on the gradation of particular devices and their impact on the cello sound. The paper is addressed both to composers and performers. Also we shall touch upon the terminology which applies to the new techniques.
Keywords: cello, extended techniques, «Seagull» effect, multiphonics,
methodology, Kaija Saariaho, George Crumb, Fausto Romitelli