2013 № 1
Igor Stravinsky as the Reader and the Bibliophile
(On the Composer’s Personal Library)
The article presents the results of a research, based on the Russian part of Stravinsky’s personal library. The «library items» and everything connected with them (marginalia, autographs, dedications, bookmarks and all kinds of notes and papers or postcards pressed between pages) were analyzed and considered in the context of the composer’s biography, his spiritual life and creative problems, with references to published and unpublished documents and letters, and other sources. The material used for the article was taken from the archives of the «Paul Sacher Stiftung» in Basel, «La Fondation Théodore Strawinsky» in Geneva and the library of the «Center for Russian Culture», Amherst College.
Keywords: source studies, Igor Stravinsky, Fyodor Stravinsky, Russian folklore, Boris Asafyev, Alexander Pushkin, Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Maria Yudina, Archbishop John (Shakhovskoy) of San Francisco, Aleksey Remizov
A Study in Bass Semitones:
On the Sketches of Shaklovity’s Aria in Stravinsky’s Orchestration
Stravinsky’s orchestration of Shaklovity’s aria from Khovanshchina which was made on Diaghilev’s request for the production in Paris, became one of а few Stravinsky’s works which have never been performed on the stage. Chaliapin, whose demands significantly affected the shape of aria, refused to sing it at the premiere. Later the fair manuscript was lost.
The main part of the paper presents the first ever source and music analyses of two sketches of aria kept in Stravinsky’s archive in Basel. The conclusion is stunning: in the course of restoration of Khovanshchina Stravinsky repeatedly sacrificed Mussorgsky’s authentic text not even for Chaliapin but for Rimsky-Korsakov.
Keywords: Stravinsky, Mussorgsky, «Khovanshchina», Shaklovity, Chaliapin, Rimsky-Korsakov,
instrumentation, manuscript, source studies
Pier Giuseppe Gillio
The Poetical and Musical Rhythm in the Italian Melody:
The Aspects of Relation from 16th to 19th Centuries
The article describes the relationship between versification and musical rhythm in Italian vocal music, with a particular focus on the short-medium length verses.
Excluded from aulic poetry (which from 14th century up to the early 19th century only used hendecasyllables and their relative hemistichs) they re-appeared in poetry for music in the frottola at the end of the 15th century and the canzonetta in the early 17th century. Senarios and decasyllables, respectively of dactylic and anapestic scansion, were soon added to iambic-trochaic lines as developed by Chiabrera. This addition was probably brought about to fulfill requirements of musical nature.
Subsequently the history of the short-medium length verses is associated with that of the opera libretto, and is characterized by many phases leading up to the standardization established by Metastasio. For its part, after the middle of the century, the composer normally adopts rhythmic patterns extended two bars, with coincidence of two principal stress of the verse with the first beat of the bars. This trend would subsequently lead to regular «square periods». The new system ensures an automatic correspondence between musical and metrical accents. Rare prosodic infringements attested by the literature are caused almost exclusively by irregularities of versification.
But when in 19th century the melody became radically isorhythmical (with instructions for constant rhythmic incipit) both the poetic and musical metric systems, having already reached high degrees of compatibility, showed strong oppositional arrangements or new interactions.
Keywords: musical rhythm, versification, short-medium length verses, frottola, madrigal,
canzonetta, history of libretto, Gabriello Chiabrera, Pietro Metastasio, «square period»
Inganni in Girolamo Frescobaldi’s
«Capriccio sopra Ut, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La» and
«Capriccio sopra La, Sol, Fa, Mi, Re, Ut»
Contrary to the usual practice Frescobaldi used the ascending and descending hexachords as the soggetti of two separate pieces — the first and the second Capriccios from Il primo libro di capricci fatti sopra diversi soggetti et arie, in partitura (1624). The pieces are united by a common idea, such as consistent application of the inganno technique, which is rare in compositions on ut re mi fa sol la.
Keywords: Girolamo Frescobaldi, hexachord, inganno technique, compositions on ut re mi fa sol la
The Mystery of «Jephte»
(For the G. Carissimi’s Masterpiece
in the Light of A. Kircher’s Musica Pathetica Theory)
A. Kircher was the first to give a description of G. Carissimi’s spiritual dialogue Jephte and to publish a fragment of it in his treatise Musurgia universalis. He also put this work into the context of ideas of Roman musical humanism of the mid 17th century. This paper presents the first ever analyses of Carissimi’s work in the light of Kircher’s theory of musica pathetica. In particular, the tonal plan is considered in relation to the concepts of mutatio toni and stylus metabolicus, while the overall structure of the dialogue is regarded in connection with different classifications of the musical affects. In addition, an observation is made of the probable influence of ancient theatre’s models on the concept of this work. In the appendix two Russian translations are inserted: of the libretto of this spiritual dialogue (made by author of the paper) and of the text of the Carissimi’s secular dialogue I Filosofi (prepared by M. Nassonova).
Keywords: Giacomo Carissimi, «Jephte», Athanasius Kircher, «Musurgia universalis», musica pathetica, stylus metabolicus, classification of musical affects, Giovanni Battista Doni, Pietro Della Valle, Domenico Mazzocchi
Johann Joachim Quantz
Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen.
Das XI Hauptstück.
Vom guten Vortrage im Singen und Spielen überhaupt
Russian translation and comments
by Ekaterina Dryazzhina
The series of extracts from the J. J. Quantz’s treatise that are closely related to performance practice is continued in this publication. The 11th Chapter of the treatise contains important general points on the expressive performance of music, which the author of Versuch correlates with the requirements which the rhetoric doctrine sets to speaker.
Keywords: early music, history of music performance, Baroque flute, Johann Joachim Quantz,
musical rhetoric, affect, Adagio, Allegro, ornamentation, notes inégales
The Johann Joachim Quantz’s Musical Rhetoric
In this paper the 11th Chapter of J. J. Quatnz’s treatise On Playing the Flute is considered as a doctrine on musical rhetoric. This doctrine is of importance not only for performing art (both contemporary to Quantz and modern historically informed performance practice), but also for studies in history of musical-theoretical thought of Baroque and Early Classicism. The place of the 11th Chapter in overall structure of the treatise is defined and its internal formation is analyzed. Apart from this, some parallels proposed by Quantz are revealed between performing art and rhetorical doctrine on delivery of speech (pronuntiatio, Vortrag) and also the particular significance of the category of affectus for this author is noted. Finally, an observation is made on the presence of two important concepts of the Baroque affect theory in this Chapter: the first is the analogy of musical and emotional movements (motus harmonici, motus animæ) and the second — application of the four temperaments theory as a scientific basis for classification of passions of the soul and for detection of personal inclination (in this case — of performers) for music of one or another kind. And also singularity is denoted which feature the employment of the said ideas by the author of the treatise.
Keywords: Johann Joachim Quantz, «Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen», musical rhetoric, affect, temperament, Athanasius Kircher, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, music performance, dynamics, articulation
Functioning of Burial and
in the Folk Tradition in the Middle Sukhona River
This paper deals with peculiarities and reveals the significance of laments as a part of folk funeral and memorial ceremonies functioning in the middle reaches of the river Sukhona. The research was carried out on the basis of archival materials of the Traditional Culture Center of the Vologda State Pedagogical University.
Keywords: folklore, folk tradition in the Middle Sukhona River, burial and commemorative
lamentations, functions of lamentations