2013 № 4
The Notion of Pre-image for the Form
of a Piece of Art in the Twentieth-century
Greek Orthodox Philosophy and
the Specificity of the Art of Music
The article presents philosophical and aesthetical theories by Father Pavel Florensky (1882-1937), Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov (1866-1949) and Brother Andron- icus, whose secular name was Alexey Fyodorovich Losev (1893-1988). These theories explain the notion of pre-image for the form of a piece of art in a new way, i. e. in its correspondence with the image embodied. Special attention is drawn to the ideas of Losev, who synthesized the ideas of Plato and Henri Bergson (18591941) about the pre-image being in the process of its development, as well as about the pre-image as a symbolical identity of the idea and the material. The article reveals the specificity of comprehending the image on the one hand and that of the semiotics as applied to music on the other hand. Some phenomena of avant-garde in the music of the second half of the 20th century are viewed in the light of some features of music specially marked.
Keywords: Christianity, Greek Orthodoxy, image, pre-image, name, eidos, holy face, icon, form, music, Florensky, Losev, Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov
Musical iconography of Buddhism.
Introduction into the theme
The article may be considered a pioneer research on musical iconography of main denominations in Buddhism — Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana.
The iconographic data represented here are compared with traditions of Buddhist Cult music as well as of China (Tang era) and Japan Court Music. Comparative and historical analysis of musical scenes, instruments and ensembles depicted in different art works enables reconstruction of evolution stages of ancient and medieval Indian musical culture and also enlarges our knowledge of origin and development of musical traditions of China, Tibet, Korea, Japan and ancient kingdoms in South-East Asia.
The author identifies musical instruments pictured in hands of divine musicians and also the ones attributed to definite holy persons belonging to main branches of Buddhist Pantheon; a brief mention of their history is made also.
Succession of Chinese, Tibetan, etc. musical iconography with ancient Indian is traced, different non-Indian cultural superpositions are displayed also.
Keywords: musical iconography of Buddhism, Buddhist music, musical instruments,
arched harp, Sukhavati, Tusita, Dunhuang, Tara, Sarasvati, Dhritarastra,
kinnara, apsara, gandharva, kalavinka, sabda puja, raigozu
Heavenly Musicians in Indian Sculpture of V–X AD.
An Analysis of Cave Temples of Maharashtra
Numerous heavenly musicians inhabit inner and outer walls, pillars and even ceilings of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples of ancient and medieval India, being depicted in sculpture and painting. They are gandharvas, apsaras and kinnaras. They attend deities, present them gifts, dance, play musical instruments, sing hymns. The depictions of musicians appeared first in Harappa civilization in 2000 B. C., and then only in the early Buddhist art from II B. C., flourished in Sanchi sculpture and then multiplied in early medieval time. In this work author makes much use of images from the cave complexes of Ajanta, Aurangabad and Ellora (Central India, Deccan, V-X A. D.) This article raises a question not only of heavenly musicians’ iconography, but also of their function in a sacral space of this period. Author interprets these images with the help of literary sources: Vedic, Epic and Puranic literature, Buddhist Jatakas and Jain texts.
Keywords: Indian art, heavenly musicians, gandharvas, apsaras, kinnaras,
Ellora, Ajanta, Aurangabad, caves, temples, Hindu, Jain, Buddhist,
iconography, sculpture, religious art, musical instruments,
Mugham Rast: from general to different
in the interpretation of the genre canon
The article is dedicated to the comparative analysis of three variants of mugham Rast — in the interpretation of B. Mansurov, A. Bakikhanov and A. Asadullaev. The practicability of this research is due to the need to demonstrate the variance of genre model of mugham, and due to the desire to reveal the paradigm of its multi-level transformations. The conducted analysis has shown that the safety of the typological layer in the interpretational versions goes along with the variance of intonation- melodic composition of mode’s melodies, with internal combinatorics of known formulas, with the expansion or contraction of cycles’ scales, with the change of its composition due to the addition or extraction of parts, and in some cases — with the change of dramatic accents in the dynamical process of mugham’s deployment.
Keywords: Mugham Rast, genre canon, comparative analysis, interpretation, variance
Written and oral forms
of the Ashkenazi traditional music culture
The structure of the traditional Ashkenazi music culture differs radically from the music of other Europeans. For many generations of Jews the primary text was not oral, but the written one. Yiddish folklore was formed against a background of the firm written tradition. It was not precede of this tradition but was based on and interacted with it.
There are different aims, forms of notations and correlation of stable and mobile elements of the music inside and outside of the religious community. The criteria of safe keeping ore convertibility of the text are also not the same.
The New Jewish composer school strengthened not the old forms of music but created the new tradition partly connected with its roots.
The author of the article demonstrates the example of a song fixed in score, film and records but persists in oral form.
Keywords: traditional music culture of the East-European Jews, Ashkenazi folklore,
notation of the oral text, cantillation, Yiddish song
Olga Zhestkova, Liliya Sadykova
Prime donne of Rossini and Meyerbeer
This paper throws light upon the process of interaction of Italian and French traditions of opera singing in the French «grand» opera. Rossini’s operas and his views on the art of singing played a very important role in formation of vocal-tessitura disposition and dramatic types of the French opera of late 20ies and 30ies of the XlXth century. The stage activity of Isabella Colbran, Giuditta Pasta, Laura Cin- ti-Damoreau, Julie Dorus-Gras and Cornelie Falcon, who performed leading parts in operas by Rossini and Meyerbeer, is characterized. Having been taught by Italian vocal teachers, they introduced into the «grand» opera Italian bel canto with its coloratura brilliancy, which was successfully combined with expressive declamation of the French singing style.
Keywords: «grand» opera, the art of singing, soprano, prima donna, coloratura singing,
dramatic expressiveness, vocal-dramatic type