Elena V. Rovenko
Ph. D., Teaching Assistant of the Foreign Music History Subdepartment,
Researcher of the Research Center for Methodology
of Historical Musicology
of Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory

Henri Bergson:
“…the Music of Debussy is the Music of ‘la duree’ «

Among Debussy’s contemporaries, who were interested in his music, Henri Bergson holds a special place. By approving the rights of psychological time, the philosopher reflected the general tendencies of the epoch of the late 19th to early 20th century era. These tendencies were embodied both in philosophy and in science and art. Poets and painters of Symbolism were in search not only of eternity, but time and of life time of the mind — this time is equivalent to the phenomenon of Bergson’s duration (la duree). However, the philosopher chooses the music of Debussy as a sounding incarnation of la duree. In this article the author attempts to identify the possible reasons for such a comparison, appealing to the characteristics of Debussy’s sound world.

Keywords: Claude Debussy, Henri Bergson, la duree, time of the work of art,
world outlook period, perceiving consciousness,
the concept of «correspondences» (correspondances)



Elena M. Shabshaevich
Doctor of Fine Arts; Associate Professor
of the Moscow State A. G. Schnittke Institute of Music;
Senior Researcher of Moscow Conservatory Publishing

 “He Loved Doing Good for People”:
Rakhmaninov as a Participant
of Moscow Charitable Concerts

This paper deals with Rakhmaninov’s charitable activity in his Russian period which he carried on mainly in Moscow. The author fixes a connection between charitable concert activity of Rakhmani¬nov and main stages of his creative evo¬lution as a composer and a performer (in particular, she emphasizes the sig-nificance of his charitable performances in overcoming his first creative crisis) and also with social and political situa¬tion in Russia of that period (the com¬poser’s most intensive charitable activ¬ity coincided with the First World War and the revolution of 1917). In Appen¬dix there is a list of all charitable con¬certs in Moscow from 1891 to 1917 in which Rakhmaninov had participated.

Keywords: Rakhmaninov, Moscow, charitable performances, Ziloti,
Chaliapin, Koussevitzky, Scriabine


Larissa L. Gerver
Doctor of Fine Arts,
Professor of Gnessin Russian Academy of Music

The Poetry of Romances
by Rakhmaninov and Medtner
(Notes on the Subject)

While creating vocal music a composer is seeking for a word which is capable of ex¬pressing his thoughts and feelings. Step by step the poems selected by the composer form a book — a cumulative poetical text, in which, at the composer’s will, some it¬erative motives and through subjects are present. Such «books» are remarkable for unity of worldview, no matter how many poets are united in it. One of the meth¬ods of studying «books» of romance or choir music is comparative analysis. It is particularly effective when the compos¬ers in question belong to a common tra¬dition — such is the case of Rakhmani- nov and Metner.

Keywords: Rakhmaninov, Medtner, Pushkin, Tyutchev, Goethe, Fet, Balmont, poetry, romances


Nina D. Sviridovskaya
Ph. D.; Teaching Assistant
of the Russian Music History Subdepartment
of the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory

Thomas Hartmann: an Unknown Composer
of the Circle of Taneev and Rakhmaninov

This article is about T. Hartmann — Rakhmaninov’s contemporary and devotee, an outstanding composer, whose body of works is unfortunately completely forgotten. The epistolary intercourse with Hartmann survived among Rakhmaninov’s legacy and it shows how much they have in common. Hartmann, like Rakhmaninov, took theory lessons from A. Arensky and S. Taneev. Their biographies also share a lot — both had to leave Russia, moving to Europe, and then to emigrate to USA. This publication is based upon archival collections.

Keywords: Thomas Hartmann, Rakhmaninov, Taneev, Arensky, Kandinsky,
Marianna Werewkina (fon Werefkin), Gurdjieff


Marina V. Pereverzeva
Ph. D.; Teaching Assistant of the Music IT Subdepartment,
editor of Periodicals Center and doctoral candidate
of the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory

John Cage’s “Aleatory” Way:
from Indeterminacy to Chaos

Aleatory used by John Cage is caused by his taking a great interest in Zen Buddhism philosophy. The principle of com¬position allowing a chance element in the music creating and performing, Cage called indeterminacy. He followed this principle throughout his career up to creation of essentially unorganized and disorderly works of art without the determined text and form — which are to be spontaneously developing during fluid and unpredictable process of chaotic life. Chance, as Cage believed, identifies the author and the performer with everything whatever happened — he saw a true sense of music in it.

Keywords: John Cage, aleatory, chance, indeterminacy, chaos, improvisation, happening

 As a supplement —
Two textes by John Cage:

A Composer’s Confessions;
How the Piano Came to be Prepared.

Translation and commentary by Marina V. Pereverzeva


 Anna К. Demidova
Post-graduate student at the Subdepartment of Music Theory
of the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory;
Junior Researcher of the Research Center
for Contemporary Music of Moscow Conservatory

Joseph Haydn’s Early Symphonies
with Concertante Instruments

There is a special genre type of symphonies with concertante instruments in Haydn’s early works. To this type belong the symphonies with а solo part or parts at least in the slow movement (in some cases the principle of concer- tante extends on other movements) — № 6, 7, 8, 72, 31, 36, 13, 24 (partly this type of instrumentation remains in two symphonies — № 30 and 41). The spe¬cial attention in this paper is given to the questions of genre attribution: instrumentation and form in Haydn’s early symphonies with concertante instruments are compared both to chronologically earlier baroque concerto, and to later classical concert symphony. Also a review of solo designations in Haydn’s scores is given and the composer’s choice of solo instruments and a character of solo parts is analyzed.

Keywords: Haydn, symphonies with concertante instruments,
Baroque concerto, concert symphony, instrumentation,
solo, principale, concertato, obbligato


Galina V. Grigoryeva
Doctor of Fine Arts, Professor
of the Music Theory Subdepartment
of the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory

The Last Composition of N. Sidelnikov

The article is devoted to the last composition of N. Sidelnikov — a novel-sympho- ny for piano solo on motives of ancient Greek myths about Theseus, in five frescoes. This work generalizes the essential features of his thinking and style: philosophical logic, religiosity (the opus was finished in the last days of the composer’s life). The unique concept is embodied in a cyclic composition, peculiar structures (the idea of labyrinth), numerous allusions both on classical music and on previous compositions by Sidelnikov. In the present paper the particular qualities of themes, genre system, dramatic composition and piano texture are discussed.

Keywords: Nikolai Sidelnikov, «Labyrinth», stylistic result of creativity,
autobiographical character, labyrinth, figurative, allusion


Sergey A. Uvarov
Postgraduate student
of the Foreign Music History Subdepartment
of the Moscow Tchai-kovsky Conservatory;
cinema reporter of the journal «Izvestiya»

Wagnerism in Cinematography:
Alexander Sokurov and Lars von Trier

Richard Wagner’s music plays an important role in European and American cinematog¬raphy. In more than 700 films Wagner’s musi¬cal themes are used — first of all, «The Wed¬ding March» (from «Lohengrin») and «The Ride of Valkyries». However, we can’t talk about the influence of Wagner’s philosophy and aesthetics on most of these movies. But there are two outstanding exceptions: Alexan¬der Sokurov’s «Moloch» and Lars von Trier’s «Melancholia». Not only the music, but also the subject, style and central ideas of these films were inspired by Wagner’s musical dra¬mas. Sokurov used Wagner’s music only in few works. «Moloch» is one of them, and it shows the director’s deep understanding of spirit of Wagner’s «Gotterdammerung». On the contrary, Trier’s wagnerism permeates most of his works, including early films («The Element of Crime» and «Epidemic»), but the climax of dialogue between Trier and Wagner is «Melancholia», based on the main idea of «Tristan and Isolde» — Liebestod.

Keywords: Richard Wagner, wagnerism, film music, Alexander Sokurov,
Lars von Trier, Moloch, Melancholia, Tristan and Isolde