Stephen Walsh
Cardiff University School of Music


The idea of the single-beat metric unit, which underlies the experimental rhythms of “The Rite of Spring”, is one of a number of techniques in that ballet that originate in the work of his kuchka predecessors. It can notably be traced back to, or at least compared with, the speech melody in certain vocal works of Musorgsky. Stravinsky seems to have identified it subsequently as an aspect of “The Rite” that was worth exploring further, and “monometrics,” as he called the technique, figure in sketches of the Swiss years and characterize much of the music of that period. Stravinsky adapted the idea to a concept of metric modulation in major works of the neoclassical period, most notably “Oedipus Rex”, in which proportional metronome markings control whole scenes through series of complex changes of tempo. These proportions are seldom if ever observed in performance (including by the composer himself), but their existence in the score shows that, at least when composing, he was a true inheritor of the typically Russian love of formulaic background structures.

Keywords: “The Rite of Spring”, “Cinq pieces monometriques”, Musorgsky, metric units,
rebarrings, proportional metronome markings


Pieter van den Toorn
Professor Emeritus of Music
at the University of California at Santa Barbara,
College of Letters and Science, Department of Music

The Physicality of “The Rite” and Its Source:
Remarks on the Forces of Meter and Their Disruption

With the “Evocation of the Ancestors” in Part II as its point of departure, this paper examines the explosive nature of the rhythmic patterning in The Rite of Spring, tracing much of its explosiveness to the underlying metrical forces of parallelism and displacement, forces which, ultimately irreconcilable, lead to disruption. The argument is that these forces play themselves out on the smallest of scales, conspicuously in the “Evocation”, with the main motive of the top layer and its immediate (shortened and displaced) repeat. An irregular seven quarter-note beats in length (although sometimes shortened by a note or two), the main motive is repeated thirteen times in succession. The sort of development that may be inferred from this invention is discussed, along with the requirements for performance. In effect, features of melody, harmony, rhythm, instrumentation, and articulation that might earlier have been subjected to a “developing variation” are kept intact in order that they might serve as a foil for what does change, namely, alignment. The rationale behind this train of thought is one that Stravinsky’s critics, in condemning the repetitious, static, mechanical, and intransigent qualities of The Rite of Spring and other Stravinsky works, have all but ignored.

Keywords: “The Rite of Spring”, metrical parallelism and displacement,
developing variation, Adorno, “Evocation of the
Ancestors”, irregular metrics


Grigoriy I. Lyzhov
Ph. D., Associate Professor
of the Theory Music Subdepartment
of Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory

“The Rite of Spring” in the Analytical Essays
of Yuri Kholopov

In choosing contemporary music as a subject of serious study in the 1960s, Yuri Kholopov removed himself from the ideological sphere of the Soviets — and he was one of the first of his generation to make this choice. He overcame methodological vacuums of such times by using the power of his intuition and intellect to reinvent forgotten traditions of Russian and European music theory. Indeed, Kholopov’s scholarly and analytical apparatus is a synthesis of seemingly conflicting ideas of Hugo Riemann, Sergey Taneyev, Boleslav Yavorsky, Heinrich Schenker, Arnold Schoenberg, and Hermann Erpf. Kholopov’s conflation of these divergent analytic methodologies grew contextually out of the needs of analyzing particular works. Le Sacre was among the provocative works constantly attracting his analytic concerns, and he based most of his thoughts about it on a developing theory of modality. Thus my paper will discuss Yuri Kholopov’s analytical approach to The Rite based on his published and unpublished works on mode.

Keywords: Stravinsky, “The Rite of Spring”, Kholopov, harmony, 20th century, Rimsky-Korsakov


Marina G. Dolgushina
Doctor of Fine Arts,
Head of the Music Theory, History and
Musical Instruments Department
of Vologda State University

The Story of One Mistake Made by the Publisher
of the First “Collection of Russian Songs”
Based on Poems by A. S. Pushkin

In this paper the first published collection of vocal works on the words by A. S. Pushkin is explored for the first time. The main attention is focused on the romance “Far off, over the mountains” with music by Prince G. It is ascertained that the words of the romance belong not to Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin, but to his uncle Vassily Lvovich Pushkin — a poet and a translator, connoisseur of theatre and noticeable person of Moscow high-society of the quarter of the 19th century.

The name of the author of the romance music is identified — it is Prince Sergey Sergeevich Golitsyn, aide-de-camp to Alexander I, the hero of Napoleonic War, Major General and Privy Councillor. On the basis of archive sources his biography is partly reconstructed and some information on his works collected.
Possible cross points between the composer and the poet are revealed. The supposition is made that they could meet each other at the Moscow salon of Stepan Apraksin, who was a friend of Vassily Pushkin and a relative of Sergey Golitsyn.
The music of the romance “Far off, over the mountains” is analyzed. This work is one of the earliest examples of romances on Russian words. It was very popular in court and aristocratic environment. The romance was first published as a single music book in 1816–1817 with the composer’s dedication to Countess S. A. Samoylova. In the present paper the manuscript copy of the romance is also examined being the part of the music book of Mikhail Vielgorsky with a mark “Nice. Mars 1830”.
The author of the paper discusses possible reasons for the publisher’s mistake made in the name of the author of the romance music. The supposition is made that it is due to the death of, who probably was the initiator of the publication, and the sale of his publishing house to another owner.

Keywords: romance, Alexander Pushkin, Vassily Pushkin, Sergey Golitsyn, Honore-Joseph Dalmas, collection, the first third of 19th century


Grigory A. Moiseev
Ph. D., Senior Researcher
of Moscow Conservatory Publishing

Vasily Safonov and the August Patrons
of the Moscow Conservatory

The paper is devoted to some aspects of the august patronage of Russian conservatories by the example of the relationship between Vasily Safonov and members of the imperial family. Safonov was the headmaster of the Moscow Conservatory from 1889 to 1905. He combined the talents of pianist, conductor, teacher (creator of piano school), as well as an outstanding administrator. Due to his efforts the ambitious plan of erecting a new building for the Conservatory was implemented. Fruitful interaction between Safonov and the august patrons was of great consequence to the success of this enterprise. Analysis of the patrons’ activity is carried out on the material of official («Ustav konservatorij Imperatorskogo Russkogo muzykalnogo obschestva», 1878) and personal documents (diaries and letters of the august patrons, correspondence between Safonov and their assistants). August patronage during the Safonov’s directorship had a unique bilateral character. Besides the official patron (Grand Duchess Alexandra Iosifovna and later — Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich of Russia) the Conservatory found an ally in the person of Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovich of Russia, who was the governor-general of Moscow from 1891 to 1905. Special attention is paid to the opening of concert halls of the Conservatory, musical performances carried out by the Conservatory students in honour of the coronation of Nicholas II, Safonov’s personal contacts with the last Russian emperor. On the material of the newspapers (1898) and Russian Musical Society reports original decorations of the Small Hall are reconstructed (august portraits, painting in the ceiling). The article contains a supplement: some fragments of Report of the Moscow branch of the Russian Musical Society (1895/1896) and Sergey Vasilenko’s «Memoirs» (concerning Safonov’s musical performance at Khodynka, May 18, 1896); the latter source is given a critical assessment.

Keywords: V. I. Safonov, the Moscow Conservatory, The Small Hall of the Moscow Conservatory, the Imperial Russian musical society, P. I. Tchaikovsky, Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich of Russia, Grand Duchesse Alexandra Iosifovna of Russia, Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich of Russia, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia, Alexander III, Nicholas II, S. N. Vasilenko 


Nina D. Sviridovskaya
Teaching Assistant of the Subdepartment of Russian Music History
of Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory

“Arts’ vital force”
Pages from the History of Liberal Aesthetics Society

This article deals with Liberal Aesthetics Society — one of the cultural centers of pre-revolutionary Moscow of utmost importance, which has never been a subject of a separate research. Broad spectrum of philosophical and aesthetic topics was on the agenda of the Society, being actively discussed by the metropolitan intellectual elite in four main areas — literature, visual arts, theatre and music. The core of the club consisted of poets- symbolists, closely related to Bryusov. Frequent visitors of the meetings included Bely, Ellis (Kobynsky), Baltrusaitis, S. Soloviev, Balmont, Ivanov, Hodasevich among others. There was no stylistic unity among guests however. Thanks to the Society Moscow came to know works by A. N. Tolstoy. It was Bryusov’s initiative that made possible to organize an evening dedicated to Severyanin in December 1912 — first public recognition of him, who earlier had been just a prime target for a stinging criticism. Also works by some authors completely unknown at that time, like Tsvetaeva and Mayakovsky, could be heard in the salon.
“Blue Rose” art group, including Larionov and Goncharova, claimed certain ideological kinship with symbolists. Larionov and D. Burlyuk first met each other on one of the club gatherings. “Liberal Aesthetics” club hosted infamous one-day exhibition by Goncharova that sparked public outcry.
Many musicians, Moscow Conservatoire professors, performers, composers, critics were pleased to be part of gatherings. Active members included Scriabin, Taneev, Grechaninov, Satz, Medtner brothers, Gedike, Kastalsky, Vasilenko, Goldenweiser, Chaliapin, Hartmann, the Gnessins, Yavorsky, Kuper, Sabaneev, Koussevitsky. Concerts were organized by Igumnov, Koreshchenko, Kochetov, Deisha-Sionitskaya. “Liberal Aesthetics” welcomed Debussy, Matisse, Marinetti and performed music by Rachmaninoff, Scriabin, Medtner, Stravinsky, Steinberg, Yavorsky, Rebikov, Katuar as well as many others.
This publication is based upon archival collections as well as memoirs and letters of those who took part in society meetings.

Keywords: Liberal Aesthetics Society, Brysov, Balmont, Scriabin, Taneev, Medtner,
Goncharova, Larionov, Severyanin, Tsvetaeva, Mayakovsky


Suzanne Kassian
Docteur d’Etat and Maitre de Conferences in musicology
at the University of Paris-Sorbonne, Paris IV,
Faculty of Musicology and Music

The Problem of Identity
in the Heritage of Losev and Russian Musicology

This article examines the category of identity in the teachings of Aleksei Losev. Many of the points made in Losev’s scientific articles played an important role in the development of musicology, in part through the work of B. Asafiev. This article traces the relationship between identity as a category of philosophy, of aesthetics and as a category of music. This approach captures the phenomenon in its entirety and avoids opposition between the various elements of the category of identity in discussions about the nature of its manifestation in music. Following this analysis, the author defines the category of identity in music as well as its principles, functions, and forms.

Keywords: A. Losev, B. Asafiev, identity, category, philosophy,
music, functions of the category of identity in music,
principles of the category of identity in music,
elements of the category of identity in music


Eugenia I. Chigareva
Doctor of Fine Arts,
Full Professor of the Music Theory Subdepartment
of Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory

A. V. Mikhailov on the Music in Austrian Culture

A. V. Mikhailov’s works on Austrian artistic culture of 18th-20th centuries are of great importance for the development of Russian musicology. Mikhailov uncompromisingly criticized the prevailing in Soviet science concept of “Austrian-German music”. According to his polemical thesis, “between German and Austrian cultures is about the same difference as between Russian and French”.
A deep connection with intellectual and artistic traditions of the Baroque was considered by the scientist as one of the main specifics of the Austrian art of this period. The view, crystallized in Austria under the influence of Catholicism, claim the triumph of eternal truth over all the mundane, mutable, being in the process of becoming. Such different composers as Mozart, Schubert and Bruckner argue in the art the outlook on the world as the perfection, the harmony and the beauty.
The idea of the specifics of the Austrian culture is revealed by Mikhailov through a number of parallels between the oeuvre of the great writers and composers. The statics of Anton Bruckner’s music he compares with the leisurely unfolding of events in the novels of Adalbert Stifter, “external” manifestation of the “Austrian Spirit” by Hugo von Hofmannsthal with the transformation of the Viennese waltz to the language of eternal beauty in Richard Strauss’ oeuvre. Creativity of Arnold Schoenberg the scientist relates to the phenomenon of Stefan George’s school.
Recognizing the opera “Lulu” as “the final vertex of the Austrian culture”, Mikhailov stressed the unity of the Austrian music tradition from Joseph Haydn’s oratorios to the tragic compositions of Alban Berg. For at least two centuries this tradition, along with the entire culture of Austria, remained faithful to Leibniz’ ideal of the perfect world, incarnated in a variety of dissimilar artistic masterpieces.

Keywords: A. V. Mikhailov, Austrian culture, Austrian music, W. A. Mozart,
F. Schubert, A. Bruckner, G. Mahler, A. Schoenberg, A. Webern, A. Berg 


Tatiana V. Novikova
Assistant of Dzerzhinsk Musical Colledge;
post-graduate student of Voronezh State Academy of the Arts

On the Tradition of One Masterpiece.
“The Moonlight Sonata”:
L. Beethoven — D. Shostakovich — V. Ryabov — V. Ekimovskiy

The article examines the peculiarities of the composers’ interpretations of “The Moonlight Sonata” by L. Beethoven in the Sonata for Viola and Piano by D. Shostakovich , “Three Romantic Pieces” by V. Ryabov and the Composition № 60 by V. Ekimovskiy. At the end of the XXth century the relationship between the past and the modern and between one’s own and alien in art have completely changed which led to the emergence of works interpreting masterpieces of the past. “The Moonlight Sonata” has become a very popular object of composers’ interpretation. The works created on its basis, which are discussed in the article, develop traditions of Beethoven’s opus despite the differences in their concepts. Among them: a special emotional state; multilayer of meanings, styles, forms and genres; linear structure of the musical texture with the characteristic semitone shifts.

Keywords: tradition, interpretation, quote, “The Moonlight sonata”, Beethoven, Shostakovich, Ryabov, Ekimovskiy, Sonata for Viola and Piano, “The Three Romantic Pieces”, Composition № 60


Ida A. Gubaidullina
Ph. D., Professor of the Piano Department
of Kazan Zhiganov Conservatory (1966–1993)

Valentina N. Kholopova
Doctor of Fine Arts, Professor,
Head of the Subdepartment of Interdisciplinary Specializations
for Musicologists of Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory

Interpretative Analysis
of Sofia Gubaidulina’s Chaconne

Pianist and professor Ida Gubaidullina offers the interpretative analysis of Chaconne for piano written by her sister — composer Sofia Gubaidulina. Chaconne is an early piece of the composer (1962), which is performed rather often. Hearing it being performed by different pianists, Ida Gubaidullina came to the conclusion that these interpretations often do not correspond to the original meaning of the composition: alongside its virtuosity, Chaconne is deeply tragic in its meaning. Having decided to reveal this concept to young performers, she at the age of 83 learnt this piece, played it for her sister and received her approval, whereupon she wrote the article. She analyses the 1st edition, published in 1969, which is rhythmically different from other editions. Throughout the article, the pianist comments on the composition, using examples from the sheet music. The author of the Preface to the article, Valentina Kholopova, provides an overview of reviews of Chaconne written by different reviewers at different times.

Keywords: Sofia Gubaidulina, Chaconne for piano,
interpretative analysis, 20th century piano music


Inna M. Iglitskaya
Teacher of the Bach School of Arts for Children

Larissa L. Gerver
Doctor of Fine Arts,
Professor of Gnesins Russian Academy of Music

Alexander G. Chugaev
as a Musicologist and a Teacher of Polyphony

This paper deals with the creative biography ofAlexander Chugaev — a composer, a musicologist and a teacher — and some of his opinions concerning theory of polyphony. His main research interests were connected with the theory of fugue and problems of polyphonic texture. Particularly, Chugaev brought forward an original approach to the form of fugue in Bach’s works: he interpreted it as consisting of two parts, contrary to general view on it as a three-part form. To the theory of fugue also belongs his classification of types of tonal answers. Chugaev suggested to discern between tonal answer on modulating subject and on non-modulating subject; tonal answer, which alters the leading-tone motive, and so on. Seeking for strict theoretic statements Chugaev came to the necessity to specify the meaning of certain general terms — for example, texture, polyphony, counterpoint. In connection with problems of texture Chugaev brought forward a new term — “polyphonic- harmonic texture”, described its features and types. One more topic which was dealt with in a new way by Chugaev is part-writing. Its exploring also required new terms: “syntactic tendency of melodic units”, “target element of melodic-harmonic development”, “zones of linearity”, “expressive disharmony” and so on. On the base of new terms Chugaev formulated the main law of free polyphony which established the dependence of part-writing on linear and syntactic qualities of the voices.

Keywords: Chugaev, Shostakovich as a teacher, Bach’s fugue,
texture, polyphony, counterpoint, polyphonic-harmonic texture,
expressive disharmony