«Each Happy Family…»
This paper throws new light on the period of Prokofiev’s life during his residence abroad by presenting almost unknown up to the present moment stratum of the composer’s «underground». The biographies of his near relatives, members of the Raevsky family, are reconstructed on the basis of the unique archive materials, which also make it clear that Prokofiev was very well aware of the repressive machinery and cruel political censorship functioning in the country where he at last returned. The composer’s relatives lived in desperate poverty and were subjects to repression. Prokofiev’s permanent care of them, his tireless efforts to his cousin Alexander Raevsky’s release from prison display his personality in a new way and also represent a picture of connections of the free artist and the totalitarian regime.
Keywords: Prokofiev, personality, totalitarianism, repressions, Stalin, the Raevsky family
Joseph Matthias Hauer: «an atonal minimalist»
The article is dedicated to Austrian composer J. M. Hauer, the author of the original twelve-tone method. Hauer’s theory is described in detail in Russian research literature while his music remains practically unknown and is often estimated as primitive and amateurish. The author of present paper tries to look at Hauer’s music through the prism of the 20th-century experience, considering it in the categories of minimalism and repetitive technique. Just as John Cage, who, being under influence of Zen philosophy, tries to remove the diktat of composer’s Ego and to destroy a boundary between art and not-art, Hauer rejects the European manner of thinking and considers music as a tool of spiritual self-elevation and meditation. His interpretation of atonality essentially diverges from that of Schoenberg. Thereby Hauer’s work brings together avant-garde and post avant-garde, West and East, ratio and intuitio.
Keywords: Austrian music of the 20th century, twelve-tone-technique, tropes, Vienna modernism,
minimalism, repetitive technique, atonal music, avant-garde, synesthesia
The First Publication of Heinrich Schenker’s theory
(«Der Geist musikalischen Technik», 1895)
Both the structure and the content of the earliest of Schenker’s published articles — «The spirit of musical technique» (1895) — is something of a prospect of his future trilogy (Harmonielehre, 1906; Kontrapunkt, 1910; Der freie Satz, 1935). The said article, being a detailed version of Schenker’s report in the Philosophical Society of Vienna University, shows Schenker’s interest in philosophical and aesthetic range of problems of the musical art. The other significant feature of Schenker’s theoretical thinking is an inclination towards deep psychological reasoning of purely structural patterns of music language («technique»). From the named points of view the following problems are discussed: the origins of music, the border between the natural and the artificial (i. e. human) in music. In the light of the latter opposition the history of music is considered by Schenker as a process of gradual manifestation of the essence of music, in the course of which its elemental force («spirit») finds adequate ways («technique») of self-affirmation in the situation of inevitable compromise between the natural and the artificial. The special subject of Schenker’s article are the following: the historical role of Word and the role of repetition principle in formation of the articulating methods of the music language. Harmony and counterpoint are also considered by the theorist as necessary points in establishment and affirmation of the music proper in music in historically determined forms.
Keywords: Schenker, Vienna, aesthetics, psychology, word and music, musical language
John Cage and the History of American Music
Olga Manulkina, drawing upon the writings of M. Hicks, L. Miller, D. Patterson, analyses John Cage’s texts, especially those containing his statements on Henry Cowell, Charles Ives, and Arnold Schoenberg, and puts forward an explanation of peculiarities found in Cage’s manner of «modelling» his autobiography — namely in the part concerning his own studies and contacts that influenced his work. She notes that in the case of Cowell Cage was rather disposed to reticence and in the case of Schoenberg, on the contrary, to exaggeration.
Olga Manulkina concludes that John Cage’s texts must be critically re-evaluated before they can be relied on as a source for the study of John Cage’s work and biography — and history of American music in general. The article contains the first Russian translation of some excerpts from John Cage’s conversation with Daniel Charles and also from the composer’s correspondence with Pauline Schindler and Adolph Weiss.
Keywords: John Cage, Cowell, Ives, Schoenberg, «Silence», critical analysis,
history of American music, experimental music
On the Verge of Verbal and Musical:
Verbal Text and New Techniques of Composition
The synthesis of music and words generated many diverse results in the European art of the XX century. The ratio of verbal and musical components may differ greatly. The extreme cases are the following: verbal text with minimal addition of music on the one hand and musical composition with separate inclusions of words or word fragments — on the other. There are a lot of intermediate gradations between these two poles including «text-musical forms» where treatment of text is traditional. Some specimens analyzed in this paper (including two compositions in serial technique) occupy different positions of the said scale.
Keywords: synthesis of music and words, text-musical forms, new approaches to treatment of the text,
verbal-musical compositions in serial technique
Dimitry Yu. Goldobin
Some Particular Features of Contrapuntal Treatment
in the German Organ Intabulations
of XVI–XVII Centuries
The German organ tablature — both the «old» as well as the «new» one — has by its nature good capacities to represent the horizontal, contrapuntal part-writing «line by line» with high fidelity, like an open score. This feature would have to be of a great value for keyboard intabulating of the vocal polyphonic compositions. But the sources of the XVI–XVII centuries often show us the coexistence of the «score» principle (that of clear voice-leading) with the «tablature» principle proper (privileging the instrumental specificity and organist’s commodity). During this period, there have been substantial evolution of the intabulation methods and treatment of tablature as a notation form. While in the early 16th-century sources each tablature line usually transcribes a voice of a polyphonic ensemble in its integrity («score» principle), the later 17th-century and especially 17th-century transcribing methods become more varied and often freer. Sometimes voices of a polyphonic piece are transcribed in tablature lines literally (just as in earlier works), creating a kind of «letter score», that seems to be rather multifunctional than specifically organ transcription. However in many cases (probably in the most part of them), the genuine «tablature» principle, that simplifies (and distorts) written counterpoint in order to make it easier to read, to play and to copy, is preferred to the «score» method. There are, essentially, two kinds of simplifications: (1) rewriting of the passages, which in the original vocal work are written in crossed part-writing, in uncrossed form for the sake of easier reading and distribution between a musician’s hands; (2) reduction of number of parts, especially in works for six and more voices (polychoral works in particular). These tendencies have their extreme expression in such methods as recomposition of the whole polyphonic texture on the basis of the harmonic structure of the original work, or its reduction to just a two-voice frame (treble and bass).
Keywords: organ, keyboard, intabulation, old German tablature, new German tablature, score,
polyphony, counterpoint, part-writing, voice-leading, polychoral
Johann Joahim Quantz
Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen. Das XII. Hauptstück. Von der Art das Allegro zu spielen
Russian translation and comments by Ekaterina Dryazzhina
The series of extracts from J. J. Quantz’s treatise that are closely related to performance practice is continued in this publication. The Twelfth Chapter of the treatise contains recommendations on the performance of fast pieces, concerning articulation, phrasing, breathing, rhythm, usage of embellishments. The author of Versuch distinguishes some species of fast pieces regarding expressiveness and explains their peculiarities.
Keywords: Early music, history of music performance, Baroque flute, Johann Joachim Quantz,
Allegro, articulation, phrasing, ornamentation
Tenor and Bass Parts in Music for the
Venetian Ospedali of the 18th Century:
Historical Evidences and Contemporary Performing Practice
(a Study Based on the Analysis of the Works
by Antonio Vivaldi and Baldassare Galuppi)
Since 1960s musicologists have been trying to understand how figlie di Coro of Venetian Ospedali performed scores written for a SATB choir. In this paper different opinions on this problem (including the ideas of Michael Talbot, Joan Whittemore, Richard Vendom and Micky White) are considered. Moreover, the present study displays new evidence in favor of octave transposition in C-clefs in musical practice of previous centuries. The names of the singers found in the score of B. Galuppi’s Psalm Laudate Dominum in G-major show that solo bass and tenor parts were sung by the girls an octave higher. A review of recent recordings of Venetian sacred music presented in this paper reveals the impact of the musicological research on the contemporary music practice.
Keywords: 18th-century music, Antonio Vivaldi, Baldassare Galuppi, Ospedali, choral music
Schumann and Liszt:
Two Versions of Paganini’s Ninth Caprice
This paper deals with Etudes on Paganini’s Caprices by Liszt and Schumann. The novelty of Paganini’s approach to artistic and virtuosic capacities of violin is noted; the impact of Paganini’s instrumental skill on his contemporaries — great romantic composers — is analyzed. The author also gives detailed comparison of Schumann’s and Liszt’s transcriptions of Paganini’s Ninth caprice regarding structure, texture, tempo and rhythm, articulation, dynamics, fingering, performing remarks. In the Appendix the first version of Liszt’s Etude (dated 1838) is given.
Keywords: Paganini, Schumann, Liszt, caprice, etude, violin technique, piano transcription
On Performance of Schoenberg’s Piano Works
In this paper Schoenberg’s views on performance skill are discussed on the material of his articles, letters and notes, many of which have not been so far translated into Russian. The composer’s performing remarks (especially those regarding tempo) and his own signs for different types of articulation are analyzed. The author also gives a comparison of some different interpretations of Schoenberg’s piano works recorded by outstanding pianists.
Keywords: Schoenberg’s piano works, Glenn Gould, Maurizio Pollini, Alexei Lubimov, tempo remarks, articulation