Igor Evlampiev
D. Sc. in Philosophy,
Full Professor of the Institute of Philosophy,
Saint-Petersburg State University

The Status of the Art Object in Russian Philosophy of Pan-Unity

The article analyzes the aesthetics emerged in Russian philosophy of pan-unity under the influence of German philosophy (Fichte, Schelling, Hegel). According to V. S. Solovyov’s aesthetic concept, the phenomenon receives the status of the art object if it demonstrates the anticipation of future pan-uniting, absolutely whole state of the world. This object has a high level of integrity and perfection. According to S. L. Frank’s concept, Absolute (Pan-Unity) is understood not as the final state of the world, but as its permanent base. Being in unity with the Absolute the person can open Absolute as the basis of his being (in the act of intuition). In natural objects man does not see a common absolute basis, but the art is able to represent an object so that absolute foundation of all that exists becomes evident in it; in this case the category of beauty and perfection loses its central importance. According to Frank’s aesthetics, art necessarily has mystical, religious depth.

Keywords: philosophy of Pan-Unity, Vladimir Solovyov,
Semyon Frank, aesthetics, religious sense of art


Irina Blauberg
D. Sc. in Philosophy,
Leading Researcher of the Institute of Philosophy,
Russian Academy of Sciences

Bergsonism in the Philosophy of Music: Vladimir Jankélévitch’s “Negative Aesthetics”

In his concept of musical creativity, French philosopher Vladimir Jankélévitch (1903–1985) relied greatly upon the ideas of Henri Bergson, who believed that music expresses “pure duration” better than all other arts. Music in its essence is a temporal art, and this, according to Jankélévitch, is the cause of its inherent paradoxes: expressiveness and inexpressiveness, repetition and innovation, etc. Music and philosophy are similar: both, in their own ways, are trying “to express the inexpressible”, something that is rooted deep in the human experience, in existence itself. The theme of the ineffable, one of the most important in Jankélévitch’s work, goes back to mystical tradition. In his writings on music, this subject acquires a special form called “negative aesthetics” (on the analogy of “negative theology”). According to one of researchers, Jankélévitch “opposes the miracle of creativity to imperialism of knowledge”.

Keywords: music, time, duration, ineffable,
Bergson, Jankélévitch, irreversibility




Natalia Braginskaya
Ph. D., Associate Professor,
Head of the Foreign Music History Subdepartment,
Dean of the Department of Musicology,
Saint-Petersburg Rimsky-Korsakov Conservatory

Autographs of “The Rite of Spring” at the National Library of Russia

At the Department of Manuscripts of the National Library of Russia, among Igor Stravinsky’s autographs, there are kept several drafts of orchestration of the ballet The Rite of Spring (collection 746, № 101). To date, only one piece of the manuscript (p. 1) has been reproduced in the book by Svetlana Savenko Mir Stravinskogo (The World of Stravinsky; 2001) with minimal comments. Meanwhile, undated sketches of the score are of great interest to researchers because they allow to look into the composer’s creative laboratory and observe the process of birth of the orchestral masterpiece The Rite of Spring. Attribution of all the fragments of the manuscript, description and interpretation of the important points of differences compared to the printed version of the score, as well as the history of the appearance of the document in the National Library of Russia and the establishment of the name of its former owner — these are the tasks that the author of this article tries to resolve.

Keywords: Igor Stravinsky, ballet “The Rite of Spring”,
score, orchestration, drafts, autograph, Stepan Mitusov

Tatiana Baranova
Ph. D., independent researcher,
scientific advisor of “Verein Bruderholz Musik-Fest” (Switzerland)

Working on “The Rite of Spring”: Stravinsky’s Sketches for the Ballet at the Paul Sacher Stiftung

 In 1969 Robert Craft has published Stravinsky’s Sketchbook for The Rite of Spring. It is difficult to overestimate the significance of this publication which provided important clues about the composer’s compositional process. After Stravinsky’s death, the entire collection of his drafts to the Sacre that were not included in the Sketchbook was given to the Paul Sacher Stiftung. Some of these drafts were published later in various editions as facsimiles or transcriptions; however they are scattered throughout various editions, so that the transcriptions provide divergent readings. The PSS’s collection contains also some hitherto unknown sketches to the Sacre. Should all these drafts be organized in chronological order, they might form a “mini-book of sketches” supplementing the great Sketchbook.

In the present article the sketches for The Rite of Spring from the Basel collection are commented on in detail, dated, attributed, transcribed and analyzed in comparison with the ballet’s full and short scores. The results of this research help clarify the chronology of Stravinsky’s work on The Rite of Spring, shed light on the sources of Stravinsky’s rhythmic designs, and reveal hidden linearity within the complex multi-voiced texture. The sketches exercises constitute a special group of drafts which Stravinsky created in order to elaborate the harmonic transitions in the Introduction to Part II and the Sacrificial Dance (rehearsal numbers 82 and 161).

The notes that Stravinsky made in several copies of the first edition of the score in 1922 complete the sketches collection for The Rite of Spring in the PSS.

Keywords: Stravinsky, sketches, “The Rite of Spring”, Paul Sacher Stiftung, Sketchbook for “The Rite of Spring”, “mini-book of sketches”
for “The Rite of Spring”, attribution, dating, chronology,
Introduction to Part II of “The Rite of Spring”,
“Sacrificial Dance”, the sketches exercises, linearity,
harmony, facsimile, transcription


Elena (Olena) Zin’kevich
Doctor of Fine Arts,
Full Professor of Ukrainian National Tchaikovsky Academy of Music,
Head of the Subdepartment of History of Music of Ukrainian ethnoses

“The Rite of Spring”: the Ukrainian “topics”

In the fate of The Rite of Spring Ukraine is presented the first of all with Ustilug, where The Rite have been written. Now together with Lutsk it is a kind of “Stravinsky-center” where annual festivals and conferences are held.

The second subject is the Ukrainian folklore sources of The Rite. The indirect confirmation of these one can find in the third Ukrainian subject: the influence of Stravinsky’s ballet on the creativity of Ukrainian composers. As an example the ballet Olga by Yevgeny Stankovych and its kinship with the The Rite of Spring is considered. This typical instance of identity in dissimilar is interesting because of the fact that Stankovych’s music (without citation, like at Stravinsky’s) was born of Ukrainian folklore.
Among the stage interpretations of The Rite of Spring in Ukraine is Radu Poklitaru’s production (the National Opera House, 2002).

Keywords: Stravinsky, “The Rite of Spring”, Ukraine,
Ustilug, folklore, E. Stankovich



Grigory Moiseev
Ph. D.,
Senior Researcher at Moscow Conservatory Publishing Centre

P. I. Tchaikovsky’s Romances for Empress Maria Feodorovna: An Unknown Authorized Copy

The article presents the results of a study of the handwritten copy of the Twelve Romances op. 60 by Tchaikovsky — the presentation manuscript for Empress Maria Feodorovna, which was made in September 1886 by the order of the composer especially for the Empress (Twelve Romances op. 60 are dedicated to Her Majesty). The prehistory of its origin was reconstructed on the basis of correspondence by P. I. Tchaikovsky and P. I. Yurgenson, as well as with Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich (poet K. R.), who acted as a mediator between the composer and the Empress. Many archival documents are published for the first time. Among them are the diary of K. R. and his letter to Tchaikovsky of September 12, 1886 — an integral element of their famous correspondence.

This presentation copy was made in accordance with all the canons of bibliophilic culture of the time (card, velvet, stamped decoration, etc.). It consists of 30 sheets, including the page with the composer’s autographic title and dedication, and many notes by different persons, including the author. Thus, for the first time a previously unknown authorized copy of the Twelve romances ор. 60 is introduced in the scientific circulation. Modern musical textual criticism gives to authorized manuscript copies an autonomous status. In the paper there are a detailed description of the authorized copy, a comparison with other sources of musical text (the autograph and the first edition) and an attribution of notes. The other aspect of the paper is the existence of presentation copy in the context of the court musical culture as well as its destiny in the history of the imperial libraries. As an attachment to the article there is a facsimile of romances № 6, 7, and 8, which are absent in the original manuscript now located in the All-Russian Glinka Museum Association of Musical Culture (Moscow).

Keywords: P. I. Tchaikovsky, P. I. Jurgenson, N. L. Langer, J. F. Abaza, State Hermitage, The Pushkin House, The Romanovs, correspondence, imperial musical library, court musical culture, presentation copy, Twelve Romances op. 60, Empress Maria Feodorovna, Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich, authorized handwritten copy, textual criticism



Anastasia Pospelova
Teacher of theoretical disciplines,
Head of the Music Theory Department,
Children’s Asafyev Music School

Fathers and Daughters in Italian Operas Semiseria (to the Problem of Musical Sources of Verdi’s Interpretation)

This article is focused on the interpretation of father’s and daughter’s characters and their relationships in Italian opera semiseria of the first half of the 19th century. It is well-known that these theatrical characters became very important in dramatic composition of operas in the 19th century, as one can easily see in many Verdi’s operas where fathers and daughters have the most important dramatic function. Foreign scholars consider that the sentimental interpretation of father-daughter relationship in Verdi’s operas has no musical sources. Verdi’s interest in these characters, as they suppose, was dictated by general historical (attention to family’s theme, change of social function of family) or particular biographical (early death of Verdi’s children) reasons. This paper represents non-traditional point of view on this problem: musical sources of Verdi’s interpretation are drawn from operas by the preceding generation of composers. Representation of family relationships holds almost the main place in operas semiseria by F. Paër (Agnese), G. Rossini (La Gazza Ladra), V. Bellini (La Sonnambula), G. Donizetti (Emilia di Liverpool, Linda di Chamounix) and others. A special objective of this paper is to examine theatrical characters of father and daughter, typical plot motives and situations in which these characters are involved, typical moments in libretto texts, and a specific musical form of father-daughter duets. We found out that all these features were adapted by Verdi in his operas.

Keywords: G. Verdi, G. Rossini, V. Bellini, G. Donizetti, F. Paër, theatrical character, opera semiseria, la solita forma


Elena Andrushchenko
Ph. D.,
Associate Professor of Musical Management Department
of Rostov State Rachmaninov Conservatory

Andrew Lloyd Webber in the “Dialogues” with R. Wagner and G. Verdi (from the Works of the 1970–2000s)

The article characterizes the significant feature that is inherent to the evolution of genres of musical and musical film during 1970–2000s. It is a process of gradual rapprochement of the named popular genres with academic ones (especially with opera). Multiple “dialogues” (interfaces and interactions) which culminate in the creative works by the English composer Andrew Lloyd Webber (b. 1948) facilitated this process. The author of the article refers to some of Lloyd Webber’s works in which an important place belongs to the above-mentioned “dialogues” with the creative legacy of R. Wagner and G. Verdi: the rock opera Evita (1978) and the musical Phantom of the Opera (1986), as well as their screen versions (1996 and 2004, directed by A. Parker and J. Schumacher). In particular, the most important “roll-calls” of these works with operas Der fliegende Holländer, Götterdämmerung (at the level of conception of the whole and the most important scenes), Lohengrin, La Traviata, Il Trovatore, Don Carlos (dramaturgical, genre and stylistic parallels, intonation and thematic relationship) are identified.

Keywords: A. Lloyd Webber, R. Wagner, G. Verdi, musical, musical film, romantic opera, A. Parker, J. Schumacher



Anna Stoyanova
Post-graduate student
of Russian Gnesin Academy of Music; composer

Electroacoustic Composition of Iannis Xenakis: on the Method of Analysis of a Graphic Score (on the Example of “Mycenae Alpha”)

This article focuses on the methods of electroacoustic music analysis. An analytical algorithm of works is developed in the following way: 1) an analysis of records by a computer program; 2) a description of auditory experience; 3) a comparison of auditory and computer analysis. Electroacoustic work Mycenae Alpha by Iannis Xenakis was analyzed using this method. The work is considered in the context of the author’s compositional technique and technical capabilities of the computer UPIC on which the product was created. The connection of graphics with outside-time structure and of sound with inside-time structure was described, detailed analysis of the macro-composition was done.

Keywords: analysis of electroacoustic music, Iannis Xenakis,
the UPIC, “Mycenae Alpha”, graphic score



Lilit Yepremyan
Ph. D,
Associate Professor of Yerevan State Komitas Conservatory

The Fateful Choice (Concerning the Directions of the Development of Armenian Music in the 20th Century and the Problem of Its Conceptualization)

The author of the article has made an attempt to revalue the role of the so-called “postkhachaturyan generation” of Armenian composers from the point of view of their adherence to the traditions of Aram Khachaturyan. Taking as an example the String Quartet (Theme and Variations) of Eduard Mirzoyan (1947) and on the basis of the factual evidence (letters, reports), it has been shown that during the traineeship in the House of Armenian Culture in Moscow a group of young composers under the leadership of Henry Litinsky was consciously aimed at a veer towards Komitas principles of musical thought which were opposed to Khachaturyan approach. The spirit of the generation of the sixties in many ways planted seeds, in particular, in the oeuvre of E. Mirzoyan who radically changed the orienting points in the development of Armenian art.

Keywords: “postkhachaturyan generation”, Komitas traditions, the Armenian Five, Eastern and Western music, the generation of the sixties in Armenian music