2015 № 2 (21)
ON THE OCCASION OF THE 70th ANNIVERSARY
OF THE VICTORY IN THE WORLD WAR II
Honored Art Worker of the Russian Federation,
Doctor of Art Studies,
Full Professor of the Music Theory Subdepartment
of Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory
Vladimir Jurowsky’s Festival
“Narratives with the Orchestra. War and Peace”.
At the Tchaikovsky Concert Hall in Moscow another cycle of educational concerts took place, called “Vladimir Yurovsky Conducts and Narrates”. This year it was devoted to the subject of “Narratives with the Orchestra. War and Peace”. The article examines two sets of issues. One of them is the artistic response from composers of Russia, Europe and America to the events of World War II expressed in the music written in 1938-1946. The other set of issues, formulated by the author of the project and conductor Vladimir Jurowsky as “Narratives with Orchestra” spans a broad range of research challenges connected with the status of the symphony orchestra in the 20th century. The restructuring of the classical tonal system which took place in the middle of the century resulted in diverse types of changes of the timbral structure of musical compositions; these were demonstrated by the program of the festival, which was structured in an artful way by Vladimir Jurowsky.
Keywords: war, emigration, imprisonment, concentration camp, orchestra, chorus,
conductor, symphony, score, timbre
FROM THE HISTORY OF EUROPEAN MUSIC
Postgraduate student of the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory,
Foreign Music History Subdepartment
The New Poetic Forms in the Music
of the Early Baroque Era Composers
in the North Italia
In this article the evolution of the Italian concerted madrigal in the first half of the 17th century is traced from the point of view of the relation of poetry and music; the influence of the concertato esthetics on the text- musical form is considered. It is shown that during the period under consideration the collections of polyphonic music entitled as “Madrigals” included, besides the compositions on the poetry of high tradition (whose stable structural component was endecasillabo), also the compositions on the verses in the canzonet genre marked by the strophe structure and the short, rhythmic and regular verse. In the first case the polyphonic complexity of musical texture and the splendor of the concertato style corresponded to the lofty style and the gravity of tone of the poetic source; in the second dancing rhythms and couplet structure with instrumental ritornelli were the personification of short verses and the playful character of the canzonet poetry. The coexistence of “high” and “low” poetry against the background of the concertato esthetics led to the convergence and the interpenetration of genre features of the madrigal and the canzonet. The dance rhythms of the canzonet got into compositions on “high” poetry increasingly often and, on the contrary, the large-scale works began to be composed on the canzonet verses displaying a rich palette of the concertato technics. In the article the special role of the esthetics of representativeness is emphasized, which has shown in the concerted madrigal through the strengthening of the dramatic potential of music, in the canzonet — through the mixture of “high” and “low” styles of poetry which became to one of the sources of the new cantata genre.
The author thanks the Archive of Seventeenth-Century Italian Madrigals and Arias (ASCIMA) and personally Professor John Whenham for the permission to reproduce the material, published in the archive (www. ascima.bham.ac.uk).
Keywords: concerted madrigal, secular concert, Seicento, North Italy, canzonet, cantata, poesia per musica, representativeness, Gabriello Chiabrera, Biagio Marini, Giovanni Valentini, Giovanni Rovetta
Leader of the State Chamber Orchestra of Russia
Johann Heinrich Schmelzer’s Sonatae Unarum Fidium:
Features of the Style and Performance Interpretation
On the material of Johann Heinrich Schmelzer’s collection Sonatae Unarum Fidium this paper identifies specific features of the Viennese sonatas for violin and basso continuo in the middle of the 17th century: melodic exposition in homophonic harmonic structure, motiv- ic variation, increased interaction between soloist and continuo, retreat from the “free recitative” style, high level of virtuosity, and diversity of techniques. These features allow us to see the Viennese examples of the genre as a special branch of early Baroque violin sonata (the existence of which has yet passed unobserved both by musicologists and by musical practitioners). In connection with this the author offers a new approach to the interpretation of Sonatae Unarum Fidium, underlining the stylistic originality of Schmelzer’s collection. “Universal” rules of interpretation of Baroque music regarding tempo, articulation, use of embellishments and ornamentation should be adapted to performing traditions that were formed in Vienna and to the particularity of the sonatas under consideration.
Keywords: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, Sonatae Unarum Fidium, voilin sonata of 17th century,
interpretation, tempo, articulation, ornamentation, embellishments
Post-graduate student of Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory
Gregorian Sources in the Context of Anton Bruckner’s Musical Style. Small Church Vocal-Choral Works
Anton Bruckner is a composer, in the world-view of whom the religion takes a very important place, which explains his considerable interest in writing compositions in church genres. In his ecclesiastical compositions the traces of medieval chant are repeatedly found. This paper is dedicated to Gregorian sources in the context of the style of Anton Bruckner. It deals with different methods of treatment of primary sources in Bruckner’s small church choirs. Also the problem of correlation of Bruckner’s musical language and Gregorian chant is considered. We are trying to understand how the mediaeval source affects the composer’s work.
Two ways of the composer’s treatment of Gregorian chant were found: quoting and varying of primary sources. Gregorian material creates certain degree of musical-stylistic antithesis regarding the author’s material. Such cases are often found in Bruckner’s early choirs, where there is no stylistic unity between the original source and the composer’s music (these choirs were written on the basis of simple comparison). However, in late choirs Bruckner comes to natural dialogue between the two musical styles — mediaeval and romantic, and within the boundaries of small choral opuses the unity of so crucially contrasting systems is achieved.
Keywords: Anton Bruckner, Gregorian chant (choral), small church choirs,
methods of treatment of Gregorian chant
Doctor of Art Studies,
Full Professor of Perm State Academy of Arts and Culture
K. Stockhausen’s “Zodiac. 12 Melodies for Star Signs”:
To an Aesthetics and the Theory of Formula Composition,
the Polysemantic Form
Karlheinz Stockhausen’s melody-formula concept — a basis of formula composition — is shown in the context of a change to the traditional aesthetic paradigm. The article considers part of Stockhausen’s path from spiritual to space music. Using the example of the Zodiac cycle, part of the “zodiac complex”, it sheds light on the processes of differentiation, variation and restriction of sound structures, and the principle of “balance / fluctuation”. It also addresses the issues of the equivalence of negentropy / information in the interpretation of the new sound continuum, and the latent symmetry, polysemantic form and interpretation of the formula as a further manifestation of the spiral symbol.
Keywords: change of an aesthetic paradigm, postserialism, complex thinking, Stockhausen, Zodiac, a melody-formula, a formula composition, a new sound continuum, spiral symbol, principle “balance / fluctuation”, the latent symmetry, the polysemantic form
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
“CELEBRATING THE TERCENTENARY OF C. P. E. BACH AND CH. W. GLUCK”
Stephan Lorenz Sorgner
Doctor of Philosophy,
Fellow at the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies (IEET)
on Gluck’s Opera Reform
Translation and commentary by
Three of the great reformers of the musical drama (Plato, V. Galileo and Wagner) are united by a desire to impress the audience something extra-musical. The Plato’s purpose was a political order, Galileo’s — a virtuous way of life, and Wagner’s — a new culture. On the contrary, Gluck wanted only to move from a simple conversation to a finer form of edification, which is accompanied by the experience of authentic emotions. He strove for inner-musical reforms without meaning to achieve a special extra-musical effect.
In the first section of this paper I outline the thrust of the opera reforms by Gluck. In the second I examine the statements of German philosophers of the 19th century (Schopenhauer, Wagner, Nietzsche), which discredited the reforms. In the final third section I question the assessment of Gluck’s opera reforms from present perspective.
Keywords: Ch. W. Gluck, opera reform, history of opera, musical aesthetics,
inner-musical and extra-musical purpose of creation of musical dramas,
Schopenhauer, Wagner, Nietzsche
Candidate of Art Studies,
Associate Professor of the Foreign History Music Subdepartment
of Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory
“The Wicked Gods”
(On the Extra-Musical Aspects of the
Ch. W. Gluck’s Opera Reform)
The S. L. Sorgner’s thesis that opera reform by Gluck was limited to only inner-musical tasks is challenged in this paper. It is shown that dedication to Alceste, on which Sorgner bases his view on the Gluck’s reform does not describe in full extent even the composer’s musical innovations. In particular, it makes no reference to the most important element of the reform — the dramatically increasing role of accompanied recitative.
In the operas based on the libretti by Metastasio this technique was used in exceptional situations —with Gluck and Calzabigi “exceptional” situations, in which a high character is not able to hide his pain occur regularly indicating the brutality and senselessness of the established by “gods” order, in which man is doomed to constant suffering. For all of their differences, the Gluck’s reform operas express bourgeois values — above all, the idea of the right of private virtuous man to a happy family life. Thus, the Gluck’s reform operas, written on high, mainly mythological subjects approach, paradoxically, the bourgeois dramas and sentimental comic operas as one of the main means of promoting the new bourgeois ideology in the 18th century.
Keywords: S. L. Sorgner, musical aesthetics, Ch. W. Gluck, R. de’ Calzabigi, opera reform, history of opera, recitativo accompagnato, classical tragedy, bourgeois tragedy, theodicy
MUSIC IN THE HISTORY OF RUSSIAN AVANT-GARDE
Doctor of Art Studies,
Full Professor of Gnessins Russian Academy of Music
Daniil Kharms: Three Case Studies
The article suggests the interpretation of three compositions by Kharms in which not only titles but also many details of the text indicate in a paradoxical way a certain musical prototype. In the Variations (1936) Kharms renders the classic “Theme and variations” structure. There are both the “theme” — four beginning verses — and “variations” of the same length, in which the “theme” is repeated in altered form, and a kind of change of mode (“minor” after “major”), and a “loud” climax at the end.
The Passacaglia No. 1 (1937) is shaped like a sort of score of space with several layers. There are constant (ostinato) elements in every layer: lyrical hero (“I”), water, swaying near his feet, and “someone” deep in the water, who suddenly reveals his existence.
The short story The Beginning of a Very Good Summer Day. Symphony (a. 1937) is composed of 176 words. However, its shape looks like a symphony in four movements. There is an oppositions between “masculine” and “feminine” in the first section (Timofey, jumping out of his window; peasant Khariton, throwing a stone; woman with an abscess), a final movement in folk character (a long line of people waiting to buy sugar is portrayed) and so on.
Along with a musical prototype there is also a literary one — The 2nd Symphony by Andrey Bely in relation to which Kharms’s “symphony” became equally a continuation and a consecutive denial of genre foundations of the literary symphony.
Keywords: Daniil Kharms, Andrey Bely, variations, passacaglia, symphony
Doctor of Art Studies,
Full Professor of Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory,
Head of the Subdepartment of History and Theory of Performing Art
“Romantic Expressivity” vs. “NewObjectivity”
Musical Performance in the Context of the Russian Avant-Garde Movement of the 1910s-1920s
This article presents series of stylistic particularities inherent in the art of piano performance in Russia in the late 19th century and in the first quarter of the 20th century. New notions of how to organize sound and, consequently, a new poetics related to the performance of early musical avant-garde were then developed as a vivid alternative to pseudoromantic, academic piano art. Basing ourselves on examples taken from Prokofiev’s Sarcasms and his Toccata, on Shostakovich’s First piano sonata and on other works of the “new objectivity” period, we will draw out the features of 1920s “futurism” in piano performance and link them to those of other avant-garde artistic practices, such as Tatlin and Rodchenko in art, Eisen- stein and Dziga Vertov in cinematograph, Krutcheny and Khlebnikov in poetry. Analyzing Prokofiev’s and Shostakovitch’s own performances across the years leads us to assume that intellectualism in current performances stems from the first “antiromantic”, avant-garde decades of the 20th century.
Keywords: pseudoromantic piano performance, neue Sachlichkeit (“New Objectivity”), futurism in music,
early Russian avant-garde, Prokofiev’s and Shostakovich’s performances of their own works
Scientific Researcher at the State Institute for Art Studies,
Scientific Researcher at the Archive of the Bolshoi Theatre music library,
Teaching Assistent at Moscow Conservatory
From the Universal to the Mass:
The Otherness of Musical Classics in the Soviet Culture:
Marina Raku. Musical Classics in the Myth-Making of the Soviet Era.
The Mechanisms of “Reduction» of the Classical Heritage