The article examines the peculiarities of the composers’ interpretations of “The Moonlight Sonata” by L. Beethoven in the Sonata for Viola and Piano by D. Shostakovich , “Three Romantic Pieces” by V. Ryabov and the Composition № 60 by V. Ekimovskiy. At the end of the XXth century the relationship between the past and the modern and between one’s own and alien in art have completely changed which led to the emergence of works interpreting masterpieces of the past. “The Moonlight Sonata” has become a very popular object of composers’ interpretation. The works created on its basis, which are discussed in the article, develop traditions of Beethoven’s opus despite the differences in their concepts. Among them: a special emotional state; multilayer of meanings, styles, forms and genres; linear structure of the musical texture with the characteristic semitone shifts.